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  1. Abstract Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world’s most important non-cereal food crop, and the vast majority of commercially grown cultivars are highly heterozygous tetraploids. Advances in diploid hybrid breeding based on true seeds have the potential to revolutionize future potato breeding and production 1–4 . So far, relatively few studies have examined the genome evolution and diversity of wild and cultivated landrace potatoes, which limits the application of their diversity in potato breeding. Here we assemble 44 high-quality diploid potato genomes from 24 wild and 20 cultivated accessions that are representative of Solanum section Petota , the tuber-bearing clade, as well as 2 genomes from the neighbouring section, Etuberosum . Extensive discordance of phylogenomic relationships suggests the complexity of potato evolution. We find that the potato genome substantially expanded its repertoire of disease-resistance genes when compared with closely related seed-propagated solanaceous crops, indicative of the effect of tuber-based propagation strategies on the evolution of the potato genome. We discover a transcription factor that determines tuber identity and interacts with the mobile tuberization inductive signal SP6A. We also identify 561,433 high-confidence structural variants and construct a map of large inversions, which provides insights for improving inbred lines and precludingmore »potential linkage drag, as exemplified by a 5.8-Mb inversion that is associated with carotenoid content in tubers. This study will accelerate hybrid potato breeding and enrich our understanding of the evolution and biology of potato as a global staple food crop.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 16, 2023
  2. The environment has constantly shaped plant genomes, but the genetic bases underlying how plants adapt to environmental influences remain largely unknown. We constructed a high-density genomic variation map of 263 geographically representative peach landraces and wild relatives. A combination of whole-genome selection scans and genome-wide environmental association studies (GWEAS) was performed to reveal the genomic bases of peach adaptation to diverse climates. A total of 2092 selective sweeps that underlie local adaptation to both mild and extreme climates were identified, including 339 sweeps conferring genomic pattern of adaptation to high altitudes. Using genome-wide environmental association studies (GWEAS), a total of 2755 genomic loci strongly associated with 51 specific environmental variables were detected. The molecular mechanism underlying adaptive evolution of high drought, strong UVB, cold hardiness, sugar content, flesh color, and bloom date were revealed. Finally, based on 30 yr of observation, a candidate gene associated with bloom date advance, representing peach responses to global warming, was identified. Collectively, our study provides insights into molecular bases of how environments have shaped peach genomes by natural selection and adds candidate genes for future studies on evolutionary genetics, adaptation to climate changes, and breeding.
  3. Abstract

    Potato (Solanum tuberosumL.) is the most important tuber crop worldwide. Efforts are underway to transform the crop from a clonally propagated tetraploid into a seed-propagated, inbred-line-based hybrid, but this process requires a better understanding of potato genome. Here, we report the 1.67-Gb haplotype-resolved assembly of a diploid potato, RH89-039-16, using a combination of multiple sequencing strategies, including circular consensus sequencing. Comparison of the two haplotypes revealed ~2.1% intragenomic diversity, including 22,134 predicted deleterious mutations in 10,642 annotated genes. In 20,583 pairs of allelic genes, 16.6% and 30.8% exhibited differential expression and methylation between alleles, respectively. Deleterious mutations and differentially expressed alleles were dispersed throughout both haplotypes, complicating strategies to eradicate deleterious alleles or stack beneficial alleles via meiotic recombination. This study offers a holistic view of the genome organization of a clonally propagated diploid species and provides insights into technological evolution in resolving complex genomes.

  4. Abstract

    Fruit characteristics of sweet watermelon are largely the result of human selection. Here we report an improved watermelon reference genome and whole-genome resequencing of 414 accessions representing all extant species in theCitrullusgenus. Population genomic analyses reveal the evolutionary history ofCitrullus, suggesting independent evolutions inCitrullus amarusand the lineage containingCitrullus lanatusandCitrullus mucosospermus. Our findings indicate that different loci affecting watermelon fruit size have been under selection during speciation, domestication and improvement. A non-bitter allele, arising in the progenitor of sweet watermelon, is largely fixed inC. lanatus. Selection for flesh sweetness started in the progenitor ofC. lanatusand continues through modern breeding on loci controlling raffinose catabolism and sugar transport. Fruit flesh coloration and sugar accumulation might have co-evolved through shared genetic components including a sugar transporter gene. This study provides valuable genomic resources and sheds light on watermelon speciation and breeding history.