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  1. Abstract

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have shown to be promising additives to the catalyst layer to enhance oxygen reduction reaction in polymer electrolyte fuel cells. However, fundamental understanding of their role in complex catalyst layers in practically relevant membrane electrode assembly environment is needed for rational design of highly durable and active platinum-based catalysts. Here we explore three imidazolium-derived ionic liquids, selected for their high proton conductivity and oxygen solubility, and incorporate them into high surface area carbon black support. Further, we establish a correlation between the physical properties and electrochemical performance of the ionic liquid-modified catalysts by providing direct evidence of ionic liquids role in altering hydrophilic/hydrophobic interactions within the catalyst layer interface. The resulting catalyst with optimized interface design achieved a high mass activity of 347 A g−1Ptat 0.9 V under H2/O2, power density of 0.909 W cm−2under H2/air and 1.5 bar, and had only 0.11 V potential decrease at 0.8 A cm−2after 30 k accelerated stress test cycles. This performance stems from substantial enhancement in Pt utilization, which is buried inside the mesopores and is now accessible due to ILs addition.

  2. Zonta, Daniele ; Su, Zhongqing ; Glisic, Branko (Ed.)
    Recent developments in autonomous vehicle (AV) or connected AVs (CAVs) technology have led to predictions that fully self-driven vehicles could completely change the transportation network over the next decades. However, at this stage, AVs and CAVs are still in the development stage which requires various trails in the field and machine learning through autonomous driving miles on real road networks. Until the complete market adoption of autonomous technology, a long transition period of coexistence between conventional and autonomous cars would exist. It is important to study and develop the expected driving behavior of future autonomous cars and the traffic simulation platforms provide an opportunity for researchers and technology developers to implement and assess the different behaviors of self-driving vehicle technology before launching it to the actual ground. This study utilizes PTV VISSIM microsimulation platform to evaluate the mobility performance of unmanned vehicles at a 4-way signalized traffic intersection. The software contains three different AV-ready driving logics such as AV-cautious, AV-normal, and AV-aggressive which were tested against the performance of the conventional vehicles, and the results of the study revealed that the overall network operational performance improves with the progressive introduction of AVs using AV-normal, and AV-aggressive driving behaviors while themore »AV-cautious driving behavior stays conservative and deteriorates the traffic performance.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 18, 2023