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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
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  5. Accurate prediction of precipitation intensity is crucial for both human and natural systems, especially in a warming climate more prone to extreme precipitation. Yet, climate models fail to accurately predict precipitation intensity, particularly extremes. One missing piece of information in traditional climate model parameterizations is subgrid-scale cloud structure and organization, which affects precipitation intensity and stochasticity at coarse resolution. Here, using global storm-resolving simulations and machine learning, we show that, by implicitly learning subgrid organization, we can accurately predict precipitation variability and stochasticity with a low-dimensional set of latent variables. Using a neural network to parameterize coarse-grained precipitation, we find that the overall behavior of precipitation is reasonably predictable using large-scale quantities only; however, the neural network cannot predict the variability of precipitation ( R 2 ∼ 0.45) and underestimates precipitation extremes. The performance is significantly improved when the network is informed by our organization metric, correctly predicting precipitation extremes and spatial variability ( R 2 ∼ 0.9). The organization metric is implicitly learned by training the algorithm on a high-resolution precipitable water field, encoding the degree of subgrid organization. The organization metric shows large hysteresis, emphasizing the role of memory created by subgrid-scale structures. We demonstrate that this organization metric can be predicted as a simple memory process from information available at the previous time steps. These findings stress the role of organization and memory in accurate prediction of precipitation intensity and extremes and the necessity of parameterizing subgrid-scale convective organization in climate models to better project future changes of water cycle and extremes. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 16, 2024
  6. Streaming codes eliminate the queueing delay and are an appealing candidate for low latency communications. This work studies the tradeoff between error probability p_e and decoding deadline ∆ of infinite-memory random linear streaming codes (RLSCs) over i.i.d. symbol erasure channels (SECs). The contributions include (i) Proving pe(∆) ∼ ρ∆^{−1.5}e^{−η∆}. The asymptotic power term ∆^{−1.5} of RLSCs is a strict improvement over the ∆^{−0.5} term of random linear block codes; (ii) Deriving a pair of upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic constant ρ, which are tight (i.e., identical) for one specific class of SECs; (iii) For any c > 1 and any decoding deadline ∆, the c-optimal memory length α^*_c (∆) is defined as the minimal memory length α needed for the resulting pe to be within a factor of c of the best possible p^*_e under any α, an important piece of information for practical implementation. This work studies and derives new properties of α^*_c (∆) based on the newly developed asymptotics. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 25, 2024
  7. This article presents CirFix, a framework for automatically repairing defects in hardware designs implemented in languages like Verilog. We propose a novel fault localization approach based on assignments to wires and registers, and a fitness function tailored to the hardware domain to bridge the gap between software-level automated program repair and hardware descriptions. We also present a benchmark suite of 32 defect scenarios corresponding to a variety of hardware projects. Overall, CirFix produces plausible repairs for 21/32 and correct repairs for 16/32 of the defect scenarios. Additionally, we evaluate CirFix's fault localization independently through a human study (n=41), and find that the approach may be a beneficial debugging aid for complex multi-line hardware defects. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2024
  8. Abstract

    High temporal and spatial resolution precipitation datasets are essential for hydrological and flood modeling to assist water resource management and emergency responses, particularly for small watersheds, such as those in Hawai‘i in the United States. Unfortunately, fine temporal (subdaily) and spatial (<1 km) resolutions of rainfall datasets are not always readily available for applications. Radar provides indirect measurements of the rain rate over a large spatial extent with a reasonable temporal resolution, while rain gauges provide “ground truth.” There are potential advantages to combining the two, which have not been fully explored in tropical islands. In this study, we applied kriging with external drift (KED) to integrate hourly gauge and radar rainfall into a 250 m × 250 m gridded dataset for the tropical island of O‘ahu. The results were validated with leave-one-out cross validation for 18 severe storm events, including five different storm types (e.g., tropical cyclone, cold front, upper-level trough, kona low, and a mix of upper-level trough and kona low), and different rainfall structures (e.g., stratiform and convective). KED-merged rainfall estimates outperformed both the radar-only and gauge-only datasets by 1) reducing the error from radar rainfall and 2) improving the underestimation issues from gauge rainfall, especially during convective rainfall. We confirmed the KED method can be used to merge radar with gauge data to generate reliable rainfall estimates, particularly for storm events, on mountainous tropical islands. In addition, KED rainfall estimates were consistently more accurate in depicting spatial distribution and maximum rainfall value within various storm types and rainfall structures.

    Significance Statement

    The results of this study show the effectiveness of utilizing kriging with external drift (KED) in merging gauge and radar rainfall data to produce highly accurate, reliable rainfall estimates in mountainous tropical regions, such as O‘ahu. The validated KED dataset, with its high temporal and spatial resolutions, offers a valuable resource for various types of rainfall-related research, particularly for extreme weather response and rainfall intensity analyses in Hawai’i. Our findings improve the accuracy of rainfall estimates and contribute to a deeper understanding of the performance of various rainfall estimation methods under different storm types and rainfall structures in a mountainous tropical setting.

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  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  10. Abstract

    This paper solves the consumption‐investment problem under Epstein‐Zin preferences on a random horizon. In an incomplete market, we take the random horizon to be a stopping time adapted to the market filtration, generated by all observable, but not necessarily tradable, state processes. Contrary to prior studies, we do not impose any fixed upper bound for the random horizon, allowing for truly unbounded ones. Focusing on the empirically relevant case where the risk aversion and the elasticity of intertemporal substitution are both larger than one, we characterize the optimal consumption and investment strategies using backward stochastic differential equations with superlinear growth on unbounded random horizons. This characterization, compared with the classical fixed‐horizon result, involves an additional stochastic process that serves to capture the randomness of the horizon. As demonstrated in two concrete examples, changing from a fixed horizon to a random one drastically alters the optimal strategies.

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