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  1. Abstract

    Binary stars are ubiquitous; the majority of solar-type stars exist in binaries. Exoplanet occurrence rate is suppressed in binaries, but some multiples do still host planets. Binaries cause observational biases in planet parameters, with undetected multiplicity causing transiting planets to appear smaller than they truly are. We have analyzed the properties of a sample of 119 planet-host binary stars from the Kepler mission to study the underlying population of planets in binaries that fall in and around the radius valley, which is a demographic feature in period–radius space that marks the transition from predominantly rocky to predominantly gaseous planets. We found no statistically significant evidence for a radius gap for our sample of 122 planets in binaries when assuming that the primary stars are the planet hosts, with a low probability (p< 0.05) of the binary planet sample radius distribution being consistent with the single-star population of small planets via an Anderson–Darling test. These results reveal demographic differences in the planet size distribution between planets in binary and single stars for the first time, showing that stellar multiplicity may fundamentally alter the planet formation process. A larger sample and further assessment of circumprimary versus circumsecondary transits is needed tomore »either validate this nondetection or explore other scenarios, such as a radius gap with a location that is dependent on binary separation.

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  2. Abstract

    We analyzed 20 s cadence Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite time-series photometry of the exoplanet host star HR 8799 collected in Sector 56. The amplitude spectrum shows Gamma Doradus (γ Dor) pulsations consistent with previous space-based photometry from MOST. Assuming that HR 8799 is a representative ofγ Dor stars in the Kepler sample, the dominant dipole mode at 1.98 cycles day−1implies a core rotation period of ∼0.7 day, which combined withvsiniand stellar radius measurements would result in a preliminary stellar inclination of ∼28° assuming rigid rotation. We find no significant residual photometric variation after removing the pulsation signal aside from a ∼9 days trend that is likely a systematic effect or an artifact from performing aggressive frequency subtraction in the presence of red noise.

  3. Abstract

    The orientation between a star’s spin axis and a planet’s orbital plane provides valuable information about the system’s formation and dynamical history. For non-transiting planets at wide separations, true stellar obliquities are challenging to measure, but lower limits on spin–orbit orientations can be determined from the difference between the inclination of the star’s rotational axis and the companion’s orbital plane (Δi). We present results of a uniform analysis of rotation periods, stellar inclinations, and obliquities of cool stars (SpT ≳ F5) hosting directly imaged planets and brown dwarf companions. As part of this effort, we have acquired newvsini*values for 22 host stars with the high-resolution Tull spectrograph at the Harlan J. Smith telescope. Altogether our sample contains 62 host stars with rotation periods, most of which are newly measured using light curves from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite. Among these, 53 stars have inclinations determined from projected rotational and equatorial velocities, and 21 stars predominantly hosting brown dwarfs have constraints on Δi. Eleven of these (5211+10% of the sample) are likely misaligned, while the remaining 10 host stars are consistent with spin–orbit alignment. As an ensemble, the minimum obliquity distribution between 10 andmore »250 au is more consistent with a mixture of isotropic and aligned systems than either extreme scenario alone—pointing to direct cloud collapse, formation within disks bearing primordial alignments and misalignments, or architectures processed by dynamical evolution. This contrasts with stars hosting directly imaged planets, which show a preference for low obliquities. These results reinforce an emerging distinction between the orbits of long-period brown dwarfs and giant planets in terms of their stellar obliquities and orbital eccentricities.

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  4. Abstract

    51 Eri is well known for hosting a directly imaged giant planet and for its membership to theβPictoris moving group. Using 2 minute cadence photometry from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), we detect multiperiodic variability in 51 Eri that is consistent with pulsations of Gamma Doradus (γDor) stars. We identify the most significant pulsation modes (with frequencies between ∼0.5 and 3.9 cycles day−1and amplitudes ranging between ∼1 and 2 mmag) as dipole and quadrupole gravity modes, as well as Rossby modes, as previously observed in KeplerγDor stars. Our results demonstrate that previously reported variability attributed to stellar rotation is instead likely due toγDor pulsations. Using the mean frequency of the= 1 gravity modes, together with empirical trends of the KeplerγDor population, we estimate a plausible stellar core rotation period of0.90.1+0.3days for 51 Eri. We find no significant evidence for transiting companions around 51 Eri in the residual light curve. The detection ofγDor pulsations presented here, together with follow-up observations and modeling, may enable the determination of an asteroseismic age for this benchmark system. Future TESS observations would allow a constraint on the stellar core rotation rate, which in turn traces the surface rotation rate, andmore »thus would help clarify whether or not the stellar equatorial plane and orbit of 51 Eri b are coplanar.

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  5. Abstract

    The bright starλSer hosts a hot Neptune with a minimum mass of 13.6Mand a 15.5 day orbit. It also appears to be a solar analog, with a mean rotation period of 25.8 days and surface differential rotation very similar to the Sun. We aim to characterize the fundamental properties of this system and constrain the evolutionary pathway that led to its present configuration. We detect solar-like oscillations in time series photometry from the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, and we derive precise asteroseismic properties from detailed modeling. We obtain new spectropolarimetric data, and we use them to reconstruct the large-scale magnetic field morphology. We reanalyze the complete time series of chromospheric activity measurements from the Mount Wilson Observatory, and we present new X-ray and ultraviolet observations from the Chandra and Hubble space telescopes. Finally, we use the updated observational constraints to assess the rotational history of the star and estimate the wind braking torque. We conclude that the remaining uncertainty on the stellar age currently prevents an unambiguous interpretation of the properties ofλSer, and that the rate of angular momentum loss appears to be higher than for other stars with a similar Rossby number. Future asteroseismic observations may help tomore »improve the precision of the stellar age.

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  6. Abstract

    Current spectroscopic surveys are producing large catalogs of chemical abundances for stars of all types. The yttrium-to-magnesium ratio, [Y/Mg], has emerged as a candidate age indicator for solar twins in the local stellar neighborhood. However, it is unclear whether it is a viable age diagnostic for more diverse stellar types, so we investigate [Y/Mg] as an age indicator for the FGK-type planet host stars observed by Kepler. We find that the [Y/Mg] “Clock” is most precise for solar twins, with a [Y/Mg]/age slope ofm= −0.0370 ±0.0071 dex Gyr−1andσAge= 2.6 Gyr. We attribute the lower precision compared to literature results to nonsolar twins contaminating our solar twin sample and recommend a 1.5 Gyr systematic uncertainty for stellar ages derived with any [Y/Mg]–Age relation. We also analyzed the [Y/Mg] Clock as a function ofTeff,logg, and metallicity individually and find no strong trends, but we compute statistically significant [Y/Mg]–Age relations for subsamples defined by ranges inTeff,logg, and metallicity. Finally, we compare [Y/Mg] and rotation ages and find statistically similar trends as for isochrone ages, although we find that rotation ages perform better for GK dwarfs while isochrones perform better for FG subgiants. We conclude that themore »[Y/Mg] Clock is most precise for solar twins and analogs but is also a useful age diagnostic for FGK stars.

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  7. Abstract Our understanding of the properties and demographics of exoplanets critically relies on our ability to determine the fundamental properties of their host stars. The advent of Gaia and large spectroscopic surveys has now made it possible, in principle, to infer the properties of individual stars, including most exoplanet hosts, to very high precision. However, we show that, in practice, such analyses are limited by uncertainties in both the fundamental scale and our models of stellar evolution, even for stars similar to the Sun. For example, we show that current uncertainties on measured interferometric angular diameters and bolometric fluxes set a systematic uncertainty floor of ≈2.4% in temperature, ≈2.0% in luminosity, and ≈4.2% in radius. Comparisons between widely available model grids suggest uncertainties of order ≈5% in mass and ≈20% in age for main-sequence and subgiant stars. While the radius uncertainties are roughly constant over this range of stars, the model-dependent uncertainties are a complex function of luminosity, temperature, and metallicity. We provide open-source software for approximating these uncertainties for individual targets and discuss strategies for reducing these uncertainties in the future.
  8. Abstract

    We observed HD 19467 B with JWST’s NIRCam in six filters spanning 2.5–4.6μm with the long-wavelength bar coronagraph. The brown dwarf HD 19467 B was initially identified through a long-period trend in the radial velocity of the G3V star HD 19467. HD 19467 B was subsequently detected via coronagraphic imaging and spectroscopy, and characterized as a late-T type brown dwarf with an approximate temperature ∼1000 K. We observed HD 19467 B as a part of the NIRCam GTO science program, demonstrating the first use of the NIRCam Long Wavelength Bar coronagraphic mask. The object was detected in all six filters (contrast levels of 2 × 10−4to 2 × 10−5) at a separation of 1.″6 using angular differential imaging and synthetic reference differential imaging. Due to a guide star failure during the acquisition of a preselected reference star, no reference star data were available for post-processing. However, reference differential imaging was successfully applied using synthetic point-spread functions developed from contemporaneous maps of the telescope’s optical configuration. Additional radial velocity data (from Keck/HIRES) are used to constrain the orbit of HD 19467 B. Photometric data from TESS are used to constrain the properties of the host star, particularly its age. NIRCammore »photometry, spectra, and photometry from the literature, and improved stellar parameters are used in conjunction with recent spectral and evolutionary substellar models to derive the physical properties of HD 19467 B. Using an age of 9.4 ± 0.9 Gyr inferred from spectroscopy, Gaia astrometry, and TESS asteroseismology, we obtain a model-derived mass of 62 ± 1MJ, which is consistent within 2σwith the dynamically derived mass of8112+14MJ.

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  9. Abstract

    With JWST’s successful deployment and unexpectedly high fuel reserves, measuring the masses of sub-Neptunes transiting bright, nearby stars will soon become the bottleneck for characterizing the atmospheres of small exoplanets via transmission spectroscopy. Using a carefully curated target list and observations from more than 2 yr of APF-Levy and Keck-HIRES Doppler monitoring, the TESS-Keck Survey is working toward alleviating this pressure. Here we present mass measurements for 11 transiting planets in eight systems that are particularly suited to atmospheric follow-up with JWST. We also report the discovery and confirmation of a temperate super-Jovian-mass planet on a moderately eccentric orbit. The sample of eight host stars, which includes one subgiant, spans early-K to late-F spectral types (Teff= 5200–6200 K). We homogeneously derive planet parameters using a joint photometry and radial velocity modeling framework, discuss the planets’ possible bulk compositions, and comment on their prospects for atmospheric characterization.