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  1. Abstract

    M dwarf flares observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) sometimes exhibit apeak-bumplight-curve morphology, characterized by a secondary, gradual peak well after the main, impulsive peak. A similarlate phaseis frequently detected in solar flares observed in the extreme ultraviolet from longer hot coronal loops distinct from the impulsive flare structures. White-light emission has also been observed in off-limb solar flare loops. Here, we perform a suite of one-dimensional hydrodynamic loop simulations for M dwarf flares inspired by these solar examples. Our results suggest that coronal plasma condensation following impulsive flare heating can yield high electron number density in the loop, allowing it to contribute significantly to the optical light curves via free-bound and free–free emission mechanisms. Our simulation results qualitatively agree with TESS observations: the longer evolutionary timescale of coronal loops produces a distinct, secondary emission peak; its intensity increases with the injected flare energy. We argue that coronal plasma condensation is a possible mechanism for the TESS late-phase flares.

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  2. Abstract We present the first survey of quiet Sun features observed in hard X-rays (HXRs), using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR), a HXR focusing optics telescope. The recent solar minimum, combined with NuSTAR’s high sensitivity, has presented a unique opportunity to perform the first HXR imaging spectroscopy on a range of features in the quiet Sun. By studying the HXR emission of these features, we can detect or constrain the presence of high temperature (> 5 MK) or non-thermal sources, to help understand how they relate to larger, more energetic solar phenomena, and determine their contribution to heating the solar atmosphere. We report on several features observed in the 28 September 2018 NuSTAR full-disk quiet Sun mosaics, the first of the NuSTAR quiet Sun observing campaigns, which mostly include steady features of X-ray bright points and an emerging flux region, which later evolved into an active region, as well as a short-lived jet. We find that the features’ HXR spectra are well fitted with isothermal models with temperatures ranging between 2.0 – 3.2 MK. Combining the NuSTAR data with softer X-ray emission from Hinode/XRT and EUV from SDO/AIA, we recover the differential emission measures, confirming little significant emission above 4 MK. The NuSTAR HXR spectra allow us to constrain the possible non-thermal emission that would still be consistent with a null HXR detection. We found that for only one of the features (the jet) was there a potential non-thermal upper limit capable of powering the heating observed. However, even here, the non-thermal electron distribution had to be very steep (effectively mono-energetic) with a low energy cut-off between 3 – 4 keV. 
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  3. ABSTRACT We investigate the spatial, temporal, and spectral properties of 10 microflares from AR12721 on 2018 September 9 and 10 observed in X-rays using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray and the Solar Dynamic Observatory’s Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We find GOES sub-A class equivalent microflare energies of 1026–1028 erg reaching temperatures up to 10 MK with consistent quiescent or hot active region (AR) core plasma temperatures of 3–4 MK. One microflare (SOL2018-09-09T10:33), with an equivalent GOES class of A0.1, has non-thermal hard X-ray emission during its impulsive phase (of non-thermal power ∼7 × 1024 erg s−1) making it one of the faintest X-ray microflares to have direct evidence for accelerated electrons. In 4 of the 10 microflares, we find that the X-ray time profile matches fainter and more transient sources in the extreme-ultraviolet, highlighting the need for observations sensitive to only the hottest material that reaches temperatures higher than those of the AR core (>5 MK). Evidence for corresponding photospheric magnetic flux cancellation/emergence present at the footpoints of eight microflares is also observed. 
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  4. null (Ed.)