Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher.
Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?
Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.
Pyrogenic dissolved organic matter (pyDOM) is derived from black carbon, which is important in the global carbon cycle and other biogeochemical redox processes. The electron-exchange capacity (EEC) of pyDOM has been characterized in water using mediated chronoamperometry (MCA), which gives precise results under specific operational conditions, but the broader significance of these EECs is less clear. In this study, we described a novel but complementary electrochemical approach to quantify EECs of pyDOM without mediation using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). Using both the SWV and MCA methods, we determined EECs for 10 pyDOMs, 6 natural organic matter (NOM) samples, and 2 model quinones. The two methods gave similar EECs for model quinones, but SWV gave larger EECs than MCA for NOM and pyDOM (by several-fold and 1–2 orders of magnitude, respectively). The differences in the EECs obtained by SWV and MCA likely are due to multiple factors, including the potential range of electrons sampled, kinetics of electron transfer from (macro)molecular structures, and coupling of electron and proton transfer steps. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods should provide new insights into important environmental processes such as carbon-cycling, wildfire recovery, and contaminant mitigation using carbon-based amendments.more » « lessFree, publicly-accessible full text available April 26, 2024
Redox active species in Arctic lacustrine sediments play an important, regulatory role in the carbon cycle, yet there is little information on their spatial distribution, abundance, and oxidation states. Here, we use voltammetric microelectrodes to quantify the in situ concentrations of redox-active species at high vertical resolution (mm to cm) in the benthic porewaters of an oligotrophic Arctic lake (Toolik Lake, AK, USA). Mn( ii ), Fe( ii ), O 2 , and Fe( iii )-organic complexes were detected as the major redox-active species in these porewaters, indicating both Fe( ii ) oxidation and reductive dissolution of Fe( iii ) and Mn( iv ) minerals. We observed significant spatial heterogeneity in their abundance and distribution as a function of both location within the lake and depth. Microbiological analyses and solid phase Fe( iii ) measurements were performed in one of the Toolik Lake cores to determine the relationship between biogeochemical redox gradients and microbial communities. Our data reveal iron cycling involving both oxidizing (FeOB) and reducing (FeRB) bacteria. Additionally, we profiled a large microbial iron mat in a tundra seep adjacent to an Arctic stream (Oksrukuyik Creek) where we observed Fe( ii ) and soluble Fe( iii ) in a highly reducing environment. The variable distribution of redox-active substances at all the sites yields insights into the nature and distribution of the important terminal electron acceptors in both lacustrine and tundra environments capable of exerting significant influences on the carbon cycle.more » « less