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  1. Bacterial response to two-dimensional nanomaterials is dependent on the type and concentration of the material and the growth stage of the bacteria.

     
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  2. Graphene-based materials are being developed for a variety of wearable technologies to provide advanced functions that include sensing; temperature regulation; chemical, mechanical, or radiative protection; or energy storage. We hypothesized that graphene films may also offer an additional unanticipated function: mosquito bite protection for light, fiber-based fabrics. Here, we investigate the fundamental interactions between graphene-based films and the globally important mosquito species, Aedes aegypti , through a combination of live mosquito experiments, needle penetration force measurements, and mathematical modeling of mechanical puncture phenomena. The results show that graphene or graphene oxide nanosheet films in the dry state are highly effective at suppressing mosquito biting behavior on live human skin. Surprisingly, behavioral assays indicate that the primary mechanism is not mechanical puncture resistance, but rather interference with host chemosensing. This interference is proposed to be a molecular barrier effect that prevents Aedes from detecting skin-associated molecular attractants trapped beneath the graphene films and thus prevents the initiation of biting behavior. The molecular barrier effect can be circumvented by placing water or human sweat as molecular attractants on the top (external) film surface. In this scenario, pristine graphene films continue to protect through puncture resistance—a mechanical barrier effect—while graphene oxide films absorb the water and convert to mechanically soft hydrogels that become nonprotective. 
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  3. Abstract

    There is great interest in exploiting van der Waals gaps in layered materials as confinement reaction vessels to template the synthesis of new nanosheet structures. The gallery spaces in multilayer graphene oxide, for example, can intercalate hydrated metal ions that assemble into metal oxide films during thermal oxidation of the sacrificial graphene template. This approach offers limited control of structure, however, and does not typically lead to 2D atomic‐scale growth of anisotropic platelet crystals, but rather arrays of simple particles directionally sintered into porous sheets. Here, a new graphene‐directed assembly route is demonstrated that yields fully dense, space‐filling films of tiled metal oxide platelet crystals with tessellated structures. The method relies on colloidal engineering to produce a printable “metallized graphene ink” with accurate control of metal loading, grain size/porosity, composition, and micro/nanomorphologies, and is capable of achieving higher metal–carbon ratio than is possible by intercalation methods. These tiled structures are sufficiently robust to create free standing papers, complex microtextured films, 3D shapes, and metal oxide replicas of natural biotextures.

     
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