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  1. Abstract Three-body nuclear forces play an important role in the structure of nuclei and hypernuclei and are also incorporated in models to describe the dynamics of dense baryonic matter, such as in neutron stars. So far, only indirect measurements anchored to the binding energies of nuclei can be used to constrain the three-nucleon force, and if hyperons are considered, the scarce data on hypernuclei impose only weak constraints on the three-body forces. In this work, we present the first direct measurement of the p–p–p and p–p– $$\Lambda $$ Λ systems in terms of three-particle correlation functions carried out for pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 13$$ s = 13 TeV. Three-particle cumulants are extracted from the correlation functions by applying the Kubo formalism, where the three-particle interaction contribution to these correlations can be isolated after subtracting the known two-body interaction terms. A negative cumulant is found for the p–p–p system, hinting to the presence of a residual three-body effect while for p–p– $$\Lambda $$ Λ the cumulant is consistent with zero. This measurement demonstrates the accessibility of three-baryon correlations at the LHC. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Abstract The transverse-momentum $$(p_{\textrm{T}})$$ ( p T ) spectra of K $$^{*}(892)^{0}~$$ ∗ ( 892 ) 0 and $$\mathrm {\phi (1020)}~$$ ϕ ( 1020 ) measured with the ALICE detector up to $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T  = 16 GeV/ c in the rapidity range $$-1.2< y < 0.3,$$ - 1.2 < y < 0.3 , in p–Pb collisions at the center-of-mass energy per nucleon–nucleon collision $$\sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}} = 5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  TeV are presented as a function of charged particle multiplicity and rapidity. The measured $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T distributions show a dependence on both multiplicity and rapidity at low $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T whereas no significant dependence is observed at high $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T . A rapidity dependence is observed in the $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T -integrated yield (d N /d y ), whereas the mean transverse momentum $$\left( \langle p_{\textrm{T}} \rangle \right) $$ ⟨ p T ⟩ shows a flat behavior as a function of rapidity. The rapidity asymmetry ( $$Y_{\textrm{asym}}$$ Y asym ) at low $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T (< 5 GeV/ c ) is more significant for higher multiplicity classes. At high $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T , no significant rapidity asymmetry is observed in any of the multiplicity classes. Both K $$^{*}(892)^{0}~$$ ∗ ( 892 ) 0 and $$\mathrm {\phi (1020)}~$$ ϕ ( 1020 ) show similar $$Y_{\textrm{asym}}$$ Y asym . The nuclear modification factor $$(Q_{\textrm{CP}})$$ ( Q CP ) as a function of $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T shows a Cronin-like enhancement at intermediate $$p_{\textrm{T}} $$ p T , which is more prominent at higher rapidities (Pb-going direction) and in higher multiplicity classes. At high $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T (> 5 GeV/ $$c$$ c ), the $$Q_{\textrm{CP}}$$ Q CP values are greater than unity and no significant rapidity dependence is observed. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  4. Abstract Hadronic resonances are used to probe the hadron gas produced in the late stage of heavy-ion collisions since they decay on the same timescale, of the order of 1–10 fm/ c , as the decoupling time of the system. In the hadron gas, (pseudo)elastic scatterings among the products of resonances that decayed before the kinetic freeze-out and regeneration processes counteract each other, the net effect depending on the resonance lifetime, the duration of the hadronic phase, and the hadronic cross sections at play. In this context, the $$\Sigma (1385)^{\pm }$$ Σ ( 1385 ) ± particle is of particular interest as models predict that regeneration dominates over rescattering despite its relatively short lifetime of about 5.5 fm/ c . The first measurement of the $$\Sigma (1385)^{\pm }$$ Σ ( 1385 ) ± resonance production at midrapidity in Pb–Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}}= 5.02$$ s NN = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector is presented in this Letter. The resonances are reconstructed via their hadronic decay channel, $$\Lambda \pi $$ Λ π , as a function of the transverse momentum ( $$p_\textrm{T}$$ p T ) and the collision centrality. The results are discussed in comparison with the measured yield of pions and with expectations from the statistical hadronization model as well as commonly employed event generators, including PYTHIA8/Angantyr and EPOS3 coupled to the UrQMD hadronic cascade afterburner. None of the models can describe the data. For $$\Sigma (1385)^{\pm }$$ Σ ( 1385 ) ± , a similar behaviour as $$\textrm{K}^{*} (892)^{0}$$ K ∗ ( 892 ) 0 is observed in data unlike the predictions of EPOS3 with afterburner. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  6. Abstract The interaction of $$\textrm{K}^{-}$$ K - with protons is characterised by the presence of several coupled channels, systems like $${\overline{\textrm{K}}}^0$$ K ¯ 0 n and $$\uppi \Sigma $$ π Σ with a similar mass and the same quantum numbers as the $$\textrm{K}^{-}$$ K - p state. The strengths of these couplings to the $$\textrm{K}^{-}$$ K - p system are of crucial importance for the understanding of the nature of the $$\Lambda (1405)$$ Λ ( 1405 ) resonance and of the attractive $$\textrm{K}^{-}$$ K - p strong interaction. In this article, we present measurements of the $$\textrm{K}^{-}$$ K - p correlation functions in relative momentum space obtained in pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s}~=~13$$ s = 13  Te, in p–Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}}~=~5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  Te, and (semi)peripheral Pb–Pb collisions at $$\sqrt{s_{\textrm{NN}}}~=~5.02$$ s NN = 5.02  Te. The emitting source size, composed of a core radius anchored to the $$\textrm{K}^{+}$$ K + p correlation and of a resonance halo specific to each particle pair, varies between 1 and 2 fm in these collision systems. The strength and the effects of the $${\overline{\textrm{K}}}^0$$ K ¯ 0 n and $$\uppi \Sigma $$ π Σ inelastic channels on the measured $$\textrm{K}^{-}$$ K - p correlation function are investigated in the different colliding systems by comparing the data with state-of-the-art models of chiral potentials. A novel approach to determine the conversion weights $$\omega $$ ω , necessary to quantify the amount of produced inelastic channels in the correlation function, is presented. In this method, particle yields are estimated from thermal model predictions, and their kinematic distribution from blast-wave fits to measured data. The comparison of chiral potentials to the measured $$\textrm{K}^{-}$$ K - p interaction indicates that, while the $$\uppi \Sigma $$ π Σ – $$\textrm{K}^{-}$$ K - p dynamics is well reproduced by the model, the coupling to the $${\overline{\textrm{K}}}^0$$ K ¯ 0 n channel in the model is currently underestimated. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  7. Abstract In our Galaxy, light antinuclei composed of antiprotons and antineutrons can be produced through high-energy cosmic-ray collisions with the interstellar medium or could also originate from the annihilation of dark-matter particles that have not yet been discovered. On Earth, the only way to produce and study antinuclei with high precision is to create them at high-energy particle accelerators. Although the properties of elementary antiparticles have been studied in detail, the knowledge of the interaction of light antinuclei with matter is limited. We determine the disappearance probability of $${}^{3}\overline{{{{\rm{He}}}}}$$ 3 He ¯ when it encounters matter particles and annihilates or disintegrates within the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider. We extract the inelastic interaction cross section, which is then used as an input to the calculations of the transparency of our Galaxy to the propagation of $${}^{3}\overline{{{{\rm{He}}}}}$$ 3 He ¯ stemming from dark-matter annihilation and cosmic-ray interactions within the interstellar medium. For a specific dark-matter profile, we estimate a transparency of about 50%, whereas it varies with increasing $${}^{3}\overline{{{{\rm{He}}}}}$$ 3 He ¯ momentum from 25% to 90% for cosmic-ray sources. The results indicate that $${}^{3}\overline{{{{\rm{He}}}}}$$ 3 He ¯ nuclei can travel long distances in the Galaxy, and can be used to study cosmic-ray interactions and dark-matter annihilation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  8. Abstract This article reports on the inclusive production cross section of several quarkonium states, $$\textrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ , $$\psi \mathrm{(2S)}$$ ψ ( 2 S ) , $$\Upsilon \mathrm (1S)$$ Υ ( 1 S ) , $$\Upsilon \mathrm{(2S)}$$ Υ ( 2 S ) , and $$\Upsilon \mathrm{(3S)}$$ Υ ( 3 S ) , measured with the ALICE detector at the LHC, in pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 5.02$$ s = 5.02  TeV. The analysis is performed in the dimuon decay channel at forward rapidity ( $$2.5< y < 4$$ 2.5 < y < 4 ). The integrated cross sections and transverse-momentum ( $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T ) and rapidity ( $$y$$ y ) differential cross sections for $$\textrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ , $$\psi \mathrm{(2S)}$$ ψ ( 2 S ) , $$\Upsilon \mathrm (1S)$$ Υ ( 1 S ) , and the $$\psi \mathrm{(2S)}$$ ψ ( 2 S ) -to- $$\textrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ cross section ratios are presented. The integrated cross sections, assuming unpolarized quarkonia, are: $$\sigma _{\textrm{J}/\psi }$$ σ J / ψ  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <20$$ p T < 20  GeV/c) = 5.88 ± 0.03 ± 0.34 $$ ~\mu $$ μ b, $$\sigma _{\psi \mathrm{(2S)}}$$ σ ψ ( 2 S )  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <12$$ p T < 12  GeV/c) = 0.87 ± 0.06 ± 0.10 $$~\mu $$ μ b, $$\sigma _{\Upsilon \mathrm (1S)}$$ σ Υ ( 1 S )  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <15$$ p T < 15  GeV/c) = 45.5 ± 3.9 ± 3.5 nb, $$\sigma _{\Upsilon \mathrm{(2S)}}$$ σ Υ ( 2 S )  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <15$$ p T < 15  GeV/c) = 22.4 ± 3.2 ± 2.7 nb, and $$\sigma _{\Upsilon \mathrm{(3S)}}$$ σ Υ ( 3 S )  ( $$p_{\textrm{T}} <15$$ p T < 15  GeV/c) = 4.9 ± 2.2 ± 1.0 nb, where the first (second) uncertainty is the statistical (systematic) one. For the first time, the cross sections of the three $$\Upsilon $$ Υ states, as well as the $$\psi \mathrm{(2S)}$$ ψ ( 2 S ) one as a function of $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T and $$y$$ y , are measured at $$\sqrt{s} = 5.02$$ s = 5.02  TeV at forward rapidity. These measurements also significantly extend the $$\textrm{J}/\psi $$ J / ψ $$p_{\textrm{T}}$$ p T reach and supersede previously published results. A comparison with ALICE measurements in pp collisions at $$\sqrt{s} = 2.76$$ s = 2.76 , 7, 8, and 13 TeV is presented and the energy dependence of quarkonium production cross sections is discussed. Finally, the results are compared with the predictions from several production models. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  9. A bstract The production of non-prompt D 0 mesons from beauty-hadron decays was measured at midrapidity (| y | < 0 . 5) in Pb-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $$ \sqrt{{\textrm{s}}_{\textrm{NN}}} $$ s NN = 5 . 02 TeV with the ALICE experiment at the LHC. Their nuclear modification factor ( R AA ), measured for the first time down to p T = 1 GeV /c in the 0–10% and 30–50% centrality classes, indicates a significant suppression, up to a factor of about three, for p T > 5 GeV /c in the 0–10% central Pb-Pb collisions. The data are described by models that include both collisional and radiative processes in the calculation of beauty-quark energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma, and quark recombination in addition to fragmentation as a hadronisation mechanism. The ratio of the non-prompt to prompt D 0 -meson R AA is larger than unity for p T > 4 GeV /c in the 0–10% central Pb-Pb collisions, as predicted by models in which beauty quarks lose less energy than charm quarks in the quark-gluon plasma because of their larger mass. 
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