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  1. High-performance distributed computing systems increasingly feature nodes that have multiple CPU sockets and multiple GPUs. The communication bandwidth between these components is non-uniform. Furthermore, these systems can expose different communication capabilities between these components. For communication-heavy applications, optimally using these capabilities is challenging and essential for performance. Bespoke codes with optimized communication may be non-portable across run-time/software/hardware configurations, and existing stencil frameworks neglect optimized communication. This work presents node-aware approaches for automatic data placement and communication implementation for 3D stencil codes on multi-GPU nodes with non-homogeneous communication performance and capabilities. Benchmarking results in the Summit system show that choices in placement can result in a 20% improvement in single-node exchange, and communication specialization can yield a further 6x improvement in exchange time in a single node, and a 16% improvement at 1536 GPUs.
  2. Recent advancements in deep learning techniques facilitate intelligent-query support in diverse applications, such as content-based image retrieval and audio texturing. Unlike conventional key-based queries, these intelligent queries lack efficient indexing and require complex compute operations for feature matching. To achieve high-performance intelligent querying against massive datasets, modern computing systems employ GPUs in-conjunction with solid-state drives (SSDs) for fast data access and parallel data processing. However, our characterization with various intelligent-query workloads developed with deep neural networks (DNNs), shows that the storage I/O bandwidth is still the major bottleneck that contributes 56%--90% of the query execution time. To this end, we present DeepStore, an in-storage accelerator architecture for intelligent queries. It consists of (1) energy-efficient in-storage accelerators designed specifically for supporting DNN-based intelligent queries, under the resource constraints in modern SSD controllers; (2) a similarity-based in-storage query cache to exploit the temporal locality of user queries for further performance improvement; and (3) a lightweight in-storage runtime system working as the query engine, which provides a simple software abstraction to support different types of intelligent queries. DeepStore exploits SSD parallelisms with design space exploration for achieving the maximal energy efficiency for in-storage accelerators. We validate DeepStore design with an SSD simulator, andmore »evaluate it with a variety of vision, text, and audio based intelligent queries. Compared with the state-of-the-art GPU+SSD approach, DeepStore improves the query performance by up to 17.7×, and energy-efficiency by up to 78.6×.« less
  3. Using flash-based solid state drives (SSDs) as main memory has been proposed as a practical solution towards scaling memory capacity for data-intensive applications. However, almost all existing approaches rely on the paging mechanism to move data between SSDs and host DRAM. This inevitably incurs significant performance overhead and extra I/O traffic. Thanks to the byte-addressability supported by the PCIe interconnect and the internal memory in SSD controllers, it is feasible to access SSDs in both byte and block granularity today. Exploiting the benefits of SSD's byte-accessibility in today's memory-storage hierarchy is, however, challenging as it lacks systems support and abstractions for programs. In this paper, we present FlatFlash, an optimized unified memory-storage hierarchy, to efficiently use byte-addressable SSD as part of the main memory. We extend the virtual memory management to provide a unified memory interface so that programs can access data across SSD and DRAM in byte granularity seamlessly. We propose a lightweight, adaptive page promotion mechanism between SSD and DRAM to gain benefits from both the byte-addressable large SSD and fast DRAM concurrently and transparently, while avoiding unnecessary page movements. Furthermore, we propose an abstraction of byte-granular data persistence to exploit the persistence nature of SSDs, upon whichmore »we rethink the design primitives of crash consistency of several representative software systems that require data persistence, such as file systems and databases. Our evaluation with a variety of applications demonstrates that, compared to the current unified memory-storage systems, FlatFlash improves the performance for memory-intensive applications by up to 2.3x, reduces the tail latency for latency-critical applications by up to 2.8x, scales the throughput for transactional database by up to 3.0x, and decreases the meta-data persistence overhead for file systems by up to 18.9x. FlatFlash also improves the cost-effectiveness by up to 3.8x compared to DRAM-only systems, while enhancing the SSD lifetime significantly.« less