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  1. A highly porous adsorbent based on a metal–organic framework was successfully designed and applied as an innovative adsorbent in the solid phase for the heavy metal removal. MIL-125 was densely decorated by 2-imino-4-thiobiuret functional groups, which generated a green, rapid, and efficacious adsorbent for the uptake of Hg( ii ) and Pb( ii ) from aqueous solutions. ITB-MIL-125 showed a high adsorption affinity toward mercury( ii ) ions of 946.0 mg g −1 due to covalent bond formation with accessible sulfur-based functionality. Different factors were studied, such as the initial concentration, pH, contact time, and competitive ions, under same circumstances at the room temperature. Moreover, the experimental adsorption data were in excellent agreement with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetics. At a high concentration of 100 ppm mixture of six metals, ITB-MIL-125 exhibited a high adsorption capacity, reaching more than 82% of Hg( ii ) compared to 62%, 30%, 2%, 1.9%, and 1.6% for Pb( ii ), Cu( ii ), Cd( ii ), Ni( ii ), and Zn( ii ), respectively.
  2. Heavy metal ions are highly toxic and widely spread as environmental pollutants. This work reports the development of two novel chelating adsorbents, based on the chemical modifications of graphene oxide and zirconium phosphate by functionalization with melamine-based chelating ligands for the effective and selective extraction of Hg( ii ) and Pb( ii ) from contaminated water sources. The first adsorbent melamine, thiourea-partially reduced graphene oxide (MT-PRGO) combines the heavier donor atom sulfur with the amine and triazine nitrogen's functional groups attached to the partially reduced GO nanosheets to effectively capture Hg( ii ) ions from water. The MT-PRGO adsorbent shows high efficiency for the extraction of Hg( ii ) with a capacity of 651 mg g −1 and very fast kinetics resulting in a 100% removal of Hg( ii ) from 500 ppb and 50 ppm concentrations in 15 second and 30 min, respectively. The second adsorbent, melamine zirconium phosphate (M-ZrP), is designed to combine the amine and triazine nitrogen's functional groups of melamine with the hydroxyl active sites of zirconium phosphate to effectively capture Pb( ii ) ions from water. The M-ZrP adsorbent shows exceptionally high adsorption affinity for Pb( ii ) with a capacity of 681 mg gmore »−1 and 1000 mg g −1 using an adsorbent dose of 1 g L −1 and 2 g L −1 , respectively. The high adsorption capacity is also coupled with fast kinetics where the equilibrium time required for the 100% removal of Pb( ii ) from 1 ppm, 100 ppm and 1000 ppm concentrations is 40 seconds, 5 min and 30 min, respectively using an adsorbent dose of 1 g L −1 . In a mixture of six heavy metal ions at a concentration of 10 ppm, the removal efficiency is 100% for Pb( ii ), 99% for Hg( ii ), Cd( ii ) and Zn( ii ), 94% for Cu( ii ), and 90% for Ni( ii ) while at a higher concentration of 250 ppm the removal efficiency for Pb( ii ) is 95% compared to 23% for Hg( ii ) and less than 10% for the other ions. Because of the fast adsorption kinetics, high removal capacity, excellent regeneration, stability and reusability, the MT-PRGO and M-ZrP are proposed as top performing remediation adsorbents for the solid phase extraction of Hg( ii ) and Pb( ii ), respectively from contaminated water.« less
  3. Palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions represent a significant advancement in contemporary organic synthesis as these reactions are of strategic importance in the area of pharmaceutical drug discovery and development. Supported palladium-based catalysts are highly sought-after in carbon–carbon bond forming catalytic processes to ensure catalyst recovery and reuse while preventing product contamination. This paper reports the development of heterogeneous Pd-based bimetallic catalysts supported on fumed silica that have high activity and selectivity matching those of homogeneous catalysts, eliminating the catalyst's leaching and sintering and allowing efficient recycling of the catalysts. Palladium and base metal (Cu, Ni or Co) contents of less than 1.0 wt% loading are deposited on a mesoporous fumed silica support (surface area SA BET = 350 m 2 g −1 ) using strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) yielding homogeneously alloyed nanoparticles with an average size of 1.3 nm. All bimetallic catalysts were found to be highly active toward Suzuki cross-coupling (SCC) reactions with superior activity and stability for the CuPd/SiO 2 catalyst. A low CuPd/SiO 2 loading (Pd: 0.3 mol%) completes the conversion of bromobenzene and phenylboronic acid to biphenyl in 30 minutes under ambient conditions in water/ethanol solvent. In contrast, monometallic Pd/SiO 2 (Pd: 0.3 mol%) completes the samemore »reaction in three hours under the same conditions. The combination of Pd with the base metals helps in retaining the Pd 0 status by charge donation from the base metals to Pd, thus lowering the activation energy of the aryl halide oxidative addition step. Along with its exceptional activity, CuPd/SiO 2 exhibits excellent recycling performance with a turnover frequency (TOF) of 280 000 h −1 under microwave reaction conditions at 60 °C. Our study demonstrates that SEA is an excellent synthetic strategy for depositing ultra-small Pd-based bimetallic nanoparticles on porous silica for SCC. This avenue not only provides highly active and sintering-resistant catalysts but also significantly lowers Pd contents in the catalysts without compromising catalytic activity, making the catalysts very practical for large-scale applications.« less