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Creators/Authors contains: "Ievlev, Anton V."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 9, 2024
  2. The unique physical properties of two-dimensional (2D) metal halide perovskites (MHPs) such as nonlinear optics, anisotropic charge transport, and ferroelectricity have made these materials promising candidates for multifunctional applications. Recently, fluorine derivatives such as 4,4-difluoropiperidinium lead iodide perovskite or (4,4-DFPD, C 5 H 10 F 2 N) 2 PbI 4 have shown strong ferroelectricity as compared to other 2D MHPs. Although it was previously addressed that the ferroelectricity in MHPs can be affected by illumination, the underlying physical mechanisms of light–ferroelectricity interaction in 2D MHPs are still lacking. Here, we explore the electromechanical responses in 4,4-(DFPD) 2 PbI 4 thin films using advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques revealing ferroelectric domain structures. Hysteretic ferroelectric loops measured by contact-Kelvin probe force microscopy are dependent on domain structures under dark conditions, while ferroelectricity weakens under illumination. The X-ray diffraction patterns exhibit significant changes in preferential orientation of individual lattice planes under illumination. Particularly, the reduced intensity of the (1 1 1) lattice plane under illumination leads to transitioning from a ferroelectric to a paraelectric phase. The instability of positive ions, especially molecular organic cations, is observed under illumination by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The combination of crystallographic orientation and chemical changes undermore »illumination clearly contributes to the origin of light–ferroelectricity interaction in 2D (4,4-DFPD, C 5 H 10 F 2 N) 2 PbI 4 .« less
  3. Abstract

    Mixed cesium‐ and formamidinium‐based metal halide perovskites (MHPs) are emerging as ideal photovoltaic materials due to their promising performance and improved stability. While theoretical predictions suggest that a larger composition ratio of Cs (≈30%) aids the formation of a pure photoactive α‐phase, high photovoltaic performances can only be realized in MHPs with moderate Cs ratios. In fact, elemental mixing in a solution can result in chemical complexities with non‐equilibrium phases, causing chemical inhomogeneities localized in the MHPs that are not traceable with global device‐level measurements. Thus, the chemical origin of the complexities and understanding of their effect on stability and functionality remain elusive. Herein, through spatially resolved analyses, the fate of local chemical structures, particularly the evolution pathway of non‐equilibrium phases and the resulting local inhomogeneities in MHPs is comprehensively explored. It is shown that Cs‐rich MHPs have substantial local inhomogeneities at the initial crystallization step, which do not fully convert to the α‐phase and thereby compromise the optoelectronic performance of the materials. These fundamental observations allow the authors to draw a complete chemical landscape of MHPs including nanoscale chemical mechanisms, providing indispensable insights into the realization of a functional materials platform.

    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 16, 2023
  4. Abstract

    Ferroelectric materials exhibit spontaneous polarization that can be switched by electric field. Beyond traditional applications as nonvolatile capacitive elements, the interplay between polarization and electronic transport in ferroelectric thin films has enabled a path to neuromorphic device applications involving resistive switching. A fundamental challenge, however, is that finite electronic conductivity may introduce considerable power dissipation and perhaps destabilize ferroelectricity itself. Here, tunable microwave frequency electronic response of domain walls injected into ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3) on the level of a single nanodomain is revealed. Tunable microwave response is detected through first‐order reversal curve spectroscopy combined with scanning microwave impedance microscopy measurements taken near 3 GHz. Contributions of film interfaces to the measured AC conduction through subtractive milling, where the film exhibited improved conduction properties after removal of surface layers, are investigated. Using statistical analysis and finite element modeling, we inferred that the mechanism of tunable microwave conductance is the variable area of the domain wall in the switching volume. These observations open the possibilities for ferroelectric memristors or volatile resistive switches, localized to several tens of nanometers and operating according to well‐defined dynamics under an applied field.

  5. Abstract

    Unique optoelectronic, electronic, and sensing properties of hybrid organic–inorganic perovskites (HOIPs) are underpinned by the complex interactions between electronic and ionic states. Here, the photoinduced field ion migration in HOIPs is directly observed. Using newly developed local probe time‐resolved techniques, more significant CH3NH3+migration than I/Brmigration in HOIPs is unveiled. It is found that light illumination only induces CH3NH3+migration but not I/Brmigration. By directly observing temporal changes in bias‐induced and photoinduced ion migration in device conditions, it is revealed that light illumination suppresses the bias‐induced ion redistribution in the lateral device. These findings, being a necessary compensation of previous understandings of ion migration in HOIPs based on simulations and static and/or indirect measurements, offer advanced insights into the distinct light effects on the migration of organic cation and halides in HOIPs, which are expected to be helpful for improving the performance and the long‐term stability of HOIPs optoelectronics.