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  1. The first-order reversal curve (FORC) method is a macroscopic measurement technique that can be used to extract quantitative and microscopic properties of hysteretic systems. Using magnetic transmission x-ray microscopy (MTXM), local element-specific FORC measurements are performed on a 20 nm thick film of CoTb. The FORCs measured with microscopy reveal a step-by-step domain evolution under the magnetic field cycling protocol and provide a direct visualization of the mechanistic interpretation of FORC diagrams. They are compared with magnetometry FORCs and show good quantitative agreement. Furthermore, the high spatial resolution and element-specific sensitivity of MTXM provide new capabilities to measure FORCs in small regions or specific phases within multicomponent systems, including buried layers in heterostructures. The ability to perform FORCs on very small features is demonstrated with the MTXM-FORC measurement of a rectangular microstructure with vortex-like Landau structures. This work demonstrates the confluence of two uniquely powerful techniques to achieve quantitative insight into nanoscale magnetic behavior. 
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  2. New types of functional material structures will emerge if the shape and properties are controlled in three-dimensional nanodevices. Possible applications of these would be nanoelectronics and medical systems. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are especially important in electronics such as magnetic storage, sensors, and spintronics. Also, in those that are used as magnetic resonance imaging contrasts, and tissue specific therapeutic agents, as well as in the labeling and sorting of cells, drug delivery, separation of biochemical products, and in other medical applications. Most of these applications require MNPs to be chemically stable, uniform in size, and controllable in terms of their magnetic properties and shape. In this paper three new functions of iron (Fe)-based nanoparticles are reported: shape transformation, oxidation prevention, and self-alignment. The shape of the Fe nanoparticles could be controlled by changing their oxidation states and properties by using a nanocarbon coating. Full field X-ray microscopy using synchrotron radiation revealed controllable magnetic properties of MNPs at the L 3 edge which depended on the oxidation states. Then, inkjet printing was successfully performed to deposit a uniform layer of MNPs by the size. 
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