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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 25, 2025
  2. Jonathan R. Whitlock (Ed.)

    Understanding the neural code has been one of the central aims of neuroscience research for decades. Spikes are commonly referred to as the units of information transfer, but multi-unit activity (MUA) recordings are routinely analyzed in aggregate forms such as binned spike counts, peri-stimulus time histograms, firing rates, or population codes. Various forms of averaging also occur in the brain, from the spatial averaging of spikes within dendritic trees to their temporal averaging through synaptic dynamics. However, how these forms of averaging are related to each other or to the spatial and temporal units of information representation within the neural code has remained poorly understood.

    Materials and methods

    In this work we developed NeuroPixelHD, a symbolic hyperdimensional model of MUA, and used it to decode the spatial location and identity of static images shown ton= 9 mice in the Allen Institute Visual Coding—NeuroPixels dataset from large-scale MUA recordings. We parametrically varied the spatial and temporal resolutions of the MUA data provided to the model, and compared its resulting decoding accuracy.


    For almost all subjects, we found 125ms temporal resolution to maximize decoding accuracy for both the spatial location of Gabor patches (81 classes for patches presented over a 9Ă—9 grid) as well as the identity of natural images (118 classes corresponding to 118 images) across the whole brain. This optimal temporal resolution nevertheless varied greatly between different regions, followed a sensory-associate hierarchy, and was significantly modulated by the central frequency of theta-band oscillations across different regions. Spatially, the optimal resolution was at either of two mesoscale levels for almost all mice: the area level, where the spiking activity of all neurons within each brain area are combined, and the population level, where neuronal spikes within each area are combined across fast spiking (putatively inhibitory) and regular spiking (putatively excitatory) neurons, respectively. We also observed an expected interplay between optimal spatial and temporal resolutions, whereby increasing the amount of averaging across one dimension (space or time) decreases the amount of averaging that is optimal across the other dimension, and vice versa.


    Our findings corroborate existing empirical practices of spatiotemporal binning and averaging in MUA data analysis, and provide a rigorous computational framework for optimizing the level of such aggregations. Our findings can also synthesize these empirical practices with existing knowledge of the various sources of biological averaging in the brain into a new theory of neural information processing in which theunit of informationvaries dynamically based on neuronal signal and noise correlations across space and time.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 14, 2025
  3. The remarkable progress in artificial intelligence (AI) has ushered in a new era characterized by models with billions of parameters, enabling extraordinary capabilities across diverse domains. However, these achievements come at a significant cost in terms of memory and energy consumption. The growing demand for computational resources raises grand challenges for the sustainable development of energy-efficient AI systems. This paper delves into the paradigm of memory-based computing as a promising avenue to address these challenges. By capitalizing on the inherent characteristics of memory and its efficient utilization, memory-based computing offers a novel approach to enhance AI performance while reducing the associated energy costs. Our paper systematically analyzes the multifaceted aspects of this paradigm, highlighting its potential benefits and outlining the challenges it poses. Through an exploration of various methodologies, architectures, and algorithms, we elucidate the intricate interplay between memory utilization, computational efficiency, and AI model complexity. Furthermore, we review the evolving area of hardware and software solutions for memory-based computing, underscoring their implications for achieving energy-efficient AI systems. As AI continues its rapid evolution, identifying the key challenges and insights presented in this paper serve as a foundational guide for researchers striving to navigate the complex field of memory-based computing and its pivotal role in shaping the future of energy-efficient AI. 
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  4. Few studies have explored the complex circuit simulation of stochastic and unary computing systems, which are referred to under the umbrella term of bit-stream processing. The computer simulation of multi-level cascaded circuits with reconvergent paths has not been largely examined in the context of bit-stream processing systems. This study addresses this gap and proposes a contingency table-based reconvergent path-aware simulation method for fast and efficient simulation of multi-level circuits. The proposed method exhibits significantly better runtime and accuracy. 
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