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Creators/Authors contains: "Inouye, David I."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. A central theme in federated learning (FL) is the fact that client data distributions are often not independent and identically distributed (IID), which has strong implications on the training process. While most existing FL algorithms focus on the conventional non-IID setting of class imbalance or missing classes across clients, in practice, the distribution differences could be more complex, e.g., changes in class conditional (domain) distributions. In this paper, we consider this complex case in FL wherein each client has access to only one domain distribution. For tasks such as domain generalization, most existing learning algorithms require access to data from multiple clients (i.e., from multiple domains) during training, which is prohibitive in FL. To address this challenge, we propose a federated domain translation method that generates pseudodata for each client which could be useful for multiple downstream learning tasks. We empirically demonstrate that our translation model is more resource-efficient (in terms of both communication and computation) and easier to train in an FL setting than standard domain translation methods. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the learned translation model enables use of state-of-the-art domain generalization methods in a federated setting, which enhances accuracy and robustness to increases in the synchronization period comparedmore »to existing methodology.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  3. Spatial reasoning tasks in multi-agent environments such as event prediction, agent type identification, or missing data imputation are important for multiple applications (e.g., autonomous surveillance over sensor networks and subtasks for reinforcement learning (RL)). StarCraft II game replays encode intelligent (and adversarial) multiagent behavior and could provide a testbed for these tasks; however, extracting simple and standardized representations for prototyping these tasks is laborious and hinders reproducibility. In contrast, MNIST and CIFAR10, despite their extreme simplicity, have enabled rapid prototyping and reproducibility of ML methods. Following the simplicity of these datasets, we construct a benchmark spatial reasoning dataset based on StarCraft II replays that exhibit complex multi-agent behaviors, while still being as easy to use as MNIST and CIFAR10. Specifically, we carefully summarize a window of 255 consecutive game states to create 3.6 million summary images from 60,000 replays, including all relevant metadata such as game outcome and player races. We develop three formats of decreasing complexity: Hyperspectral images that include one channel for every unit type (similar to multispectral geospatial images), RGB images that mimic CIFAR10, and grayscale images that mimic MNIST. We show how this dataset can be used for prototyping spatial reasoning methods. All datasets, code formore »extraction, and code for dataset loading can be found at« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. The unsupervised task of aligning two or more distributions in a shared latent space has many applications including fair representations, batch effect mitigation, and unsupervised domain adaptation. Existing flow-based approaches estimate multiple flows independently, which is equivalent to learning multiple full generative models. Other approaches require adversarial learning, which can be computationally expensive and challenging to optimize. Thus, we aim to jointly align multiple distributions while avoiding adversarial learning. Inspired by efficient alignment algorithms from optimal transport (OT) theory for univariate distributions, we develop a simple iterative method to build deep and expressive flows. Our method decouples each iteration into two subproblems: 1) form a variational approximation of a distribution divergence and 2) minimize this variational approximation via closed-form invertible alignment maps based on known OT results. Our empirical results give evidence that this iterative algorithm achieves competitive distribution alignment at low computational cost while being able to naturally handle more than two distributions.
  5. Unsupervised distribution alignment estimates a transformation that maps two or more source distributions to a shared aligned distribution given only samples from each distribution. This task has many applications including generative modeling, unsupervised domain adaptation, and socially aware learning. Most prior works use adversarial learning (i.e., min-max optimization), which can be challenging to optimize and evaluate. A few recent works explore non-adversarial flow-based (i.e., invertible) approaches, but they lack a unified perspective and are limited in efficiently aligning multiple distributions. Therefore, we propose to unify and generalize previous flow-based approaches under a single non-adversarial framework, which we prove is equivalent to minimizing an upper bound on the Jensen-Shannon Divergence (JSD). Importantly, our problem reduces to a min-min, i.e., cooperative, problem and can provide a natural evaluation metric for unsupervised distribution alignment. We show empirical results on both simulated and real-world datasets to demonstrate the benefits of our approach. Code is available at