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    We present a variety of analyses of the turbulent dynamics of the boundary of a photodissociation region (PDR) in the Carina Nebula using high resolution ALMA observations. Using principal component analysis, we suggest that the turbulence in this molecular cloud is driven at large scales. Analysis of the centroid velocity structure functions indicate that the turbulence is dominated by shocks rather than local (in k-space) transport of energy. We further find that length-scales in the range 0.02–0.03 pc are important in the dynamics of this cloud and this finding is supported by analysis of the dominant emission structure length-scale. These length-scales are well resolved by the observational data and we conclude that the apparent importance of this range of scales is physical in origin. Given that it is also well within the range strongly influenced by ambipolar diffusion, we conclude that it is not primarily a product of turbulence alone, but is more likely to be a result of the interplay between gravity and turbulence. Finally, through comparison of these results with previous observations of H2 emission from the Western Wall, we demonstrate that observations of a PDR can be used to probe the internal structure of the undisturbed portionmore »of a molecular cloud.

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  2. Abstract

    Detection of low-frequency (≤1.4 GHz) radio emission from stellar and planetary systems can lead to new insights into stellar activity, extrasolar space weather, and planetary magnetic fields. In this work, we investigate three large field-of-view surveys at 74 MHz, 150 MHz, and 1.4 GHz, as well as a myriad of multiwavelength ancillary data, to search for radio emission from about 2600 stellar objects, including about 800 exoplanetary systems, 600 nearby low-mass stars, and 1200 young stellar objects located in the Taurus and Upper Scorpius star-forming regions. The selected sample encompasses stellar spectral types from B to L and distances between 5 and 300 pc. We report the redetection of five stars at 1.4 GHz, one of which also shows emission at 150 MHz. Four of these are low- and intermediate-mass young stars, and one is the evolved starαSco. We also observe radio emission at the position of a young brown dwarf at 1.4 GHz and 150 MHz. However, due to the large astrometric uncertainty of radio observations, a follow-up study at higher angular resolution would be required to confirm whether the observed emission originates from the brown dwarf itself or a background object. Notably, all of the selected radiomore »sources are located in nearby star-forming regions. Furthermore, we use image stacking and statistical methods to derive upper limits on the average quiescent radio luminosity of the families of objects under investigation. These analyses provide observational constraints for large-scale searches for current and ongoing low-frequency radio emissions from stars and planets.

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  3. Abstract We present the complete sample of protoplanetary disks from the Gemini- Large Imaging with the Gemini Planet Imager Herbig/T Tauri Survey, which observed bright Herbig Ae/Be stars and T Tauri stars in near-infrared polarized light to search for signatures of disk evolution and ongoing planet formation. The 44 targets were chosen based on their near- and mid-infrared colors, with roughly equal numbers of transitional, pre-transitional, and full disks. Our approach explicitly did not favor well-known, “famous” disks or those observed by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, resulting in a less-biased sample suitable to probe the major stages of disk evolution during planet formation. Our optimized data reduction allowed polarized flux as low as 0.002% of the stellar light to be detected, and we report polarized scattered light around 80% of our targets. We detected point-like companions for 47% of the targets, including three brown dwarfs (two confirmed, one new), and a new super-Jupiter-mass candidate around V1295 Aql. We searched for correlations between the polarized flux and system parameters, finding a few clear trends: the presence of a companion drastically reduces the polarized flux levels, far-IR excess correlates with polarized flux for nonbinary systems, and systems hosting disks with ringmore »structures have stellar masses <3 M ⊙ . Our sample also included four hot, dusty “FS CMa” systems, and we detected large-scale ( >100 au) scattered light around each, signs of extreme youth for these enigmatic systems. Science-ready images are publicly available through multiple distribution channels using a new FITS file standard that has been jointly developed with members of the Very Large Telescope Spectro-polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet Research team.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2023