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  1. Abstract Kondo lattice materials, where localized magnetic moments couple to itinerant electrons, provide a very rich backdrop for strong electron correlations. They are known to realize many exotic phenomena, with a dramatic example being recent observations of quantum oscillations and metallic thermal conduction in insulators, implying the emergence of enigmatic charge-neutral fermions. Here, we show that thermal conductivity and specific heat measurements in insulating YbIr 3 Si 7 reveal emergent neutral excitations, whose properties are sensitively changed by a field-driven transition between two antiferromagnetic phases. In the low-field phase, a significant violation of the Wiedemann-Franz law demonstrates that YbIr 3 Si 7 is a charge insulator but a thermal metal. In the high-field phase, thermal conductivity exhibits a sharp drop below 300 mK, indicating a transition from a thermal metal into an insulator/semimetal driven by the magnetic transition. These results suggest that spin degrees of freedom directly couple to the neutral fermions, whose emergent Fermi surface undergoes a field-driven instability at low temperatures. 
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  2. One tool in efforts to tackle the ever growing problem of water scarcity is municipal wastewater reclamation to produce drinking water. Microfiltration (MF) is a central technology for potable reuse because it is highly effective in removing pathogenic protozoa, bacteria, and other colloids and for reverse osmosis pretreatment. However, as microfiltered materials accumulate at the membrane surface, its productivity is reduced requiring periodic removal of foulants. A mathematical model of MF is described in the context of hollow fiber filtration that focused on optimizing constant flux operation with backwashing. Design curves were also proposed for determining backwash timing. The model analysis is evaluated against real-world MF fouling for membranes that range in age from a few weeks to three years, observed at the world’s largest water reuse facility operated by the Orange County Water District. The presented model compares well with the full-scale operational data, and model parameters accurately capture variations in fouling kinetics with membrane age, providing clues to changes in optimal regeneration timing and frequency as membrane performance declines over long time scales. 
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  3. Nature (Ed.)
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. null (Ed.)