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  1. Abstract

    A multi-TeV muon collider offers a spectacular opportunity in the direct exploration of the energy frontier. Offering a combination of unprecedented energy collisions in a comparatively clean leptonic environment, a high energy muon collider has the unique potential to provide both precision measurements and the highest energy reach in one machine that cannot be paralleled by any currently available technology. The topic generated a lot of excitement in Snowmass meetings and continues to attract a large number of supporters, including many from the early career community. In light of this very strong interest within the US particle physics community, Snowmass Energy, Theory and Accelerator Frontiers created a cross-frontier Muon Collider Forum in November of 2020. The Forum has been meeting on a monthly basis and organized several topical workshops dedicated to physics, accelerator technology, and detector R&D. Findings of the Forum are summarized in this report.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    We report on a measurement of Spin Density Matrix Elements (SDMEs) in hard exclusive$$\rho ^0$$ρ0meson muoproduction at COMPASS using 160 GeV/cpolarised$$ \mu ^{+}$$μ+and$$ \mu ^{-}$$μ-beams impinging on a liquid hydrogen target. The measurement covers the kinematic range 5.0 GeV/$$c^2$$c2$$< W<$$<W<17.0 GeV/$$c^2$$c2, 1.0 (GeV/c)$$^2$$2$$< Q^2<$$<Q2<10.0 (GeV/c)$$^2$$2and 0.01 (GeV/c)$$^2$$2$$< p_{\textrm{T}}^2<$$<pT2<0.5 (GeV/c)$$^2$$2. Here,Wdenotes the mass of the final hadronic system,$$Q^2$$Q2the virtuality of the exchanged photon, and$$p_{\textrm{T}}$$pTthe transverse momentum of the$$\rho ^0$$ρ0meson with respect to the virtual-photon direction. The measured non-zero SDMEs for the transitions of transversely polarised virtual photons to longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($$\gamma ^*_T \rightarrow V^{ }_L$$γTVL) indicate a violation ofs-channel helicity conservation. Additionally, we observe a dominant contribution of natural-parity-exchange transitions and a very small contribution of unnatural-parity-exchange transitions, which is compatible with zero within experimental uncertainties. The results provide important input for modelling Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs). In particular, they may allow one to evaluate in a model-dependent way the role of parton helicity-flip GPDs in exclusive$$\rho ^0$$ρ0production.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Since the initial data taking of the CERN LHC, the CMS experiment has undergone substantial upgrades and improvements. This paper discusses the CMS detector as it is configured for the third data-taking period of the CERN LHC, Run 3, which started in 2022. The entire silicon pixel tracking detector was replaced. A new powering system for the superconducting solenoid was installed. The electronics of the hadron calorimeter was upgraded. All the muon electronic systems were upgraded, and new muon detector stations were added, including a gas electron multiplier detector. The precision proton spectrometer was upgraded. The dedicated luminosity detectors and the beam loss monitor were refurbished. Substantial improvements to the trigger, data acquisition, software, and computing systems were also implemented, including a new hybrid CPU/GPU farm for the high-level trigger.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2025
  6. Abstract

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will undergo an upgrade in order to increase its luminosity to 7.5 × 1034cm-2s-1. The increased luminosity during this High-Luminosity running phase, starting around 2029, means a higher rate of proton-proton interactions, hence a larger ionizing dose and particle fluence for the detectors. The current tracking system of the CMS experiment will be fully replaced in order to cope with the new operating conditions. Prototype planar pixel sensors for the CMS Inner Tracker with square 50 μm × 50 μm and rectangular 100 μm × 25 μm pixels read out by the RD53A chip were characterized in the lab and at the DESY-II testbeam facility in order to identify designs that meet the requirements of CMS during the High-Luminosity running phase. A spatial resolution of approximately 3.4 μm (2 μm) is obtained using the modules with 50 μm × 50 μm (100 μm × 25 μm) pixels at the optimal angle of incidence before irradiation. After irradiation to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of Φeq = 5.3 × 1015 cm-2, a resolution of 9.4 μm is achieved at a bias voltage of 800 V using a module with 50 μm × 50 μm pixel size. All modules retain a hit efficiency in excess of 99% after irradiation to fluences up to 2.1 × 1016 cm-2. Further studies of the electrical properties of the modules, especially crosstalk, are also presented in this paper.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024