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  1. Background: Schistosomiasis is an emerging disease associated with changes to the environment that have increased human contact rates with disease-causing parasites, flatworms that are released from freshwater snails. For example, schistosomiasis remains a major public health problem in Northern Senegal, where prevalence in schoolchildren often reaches 90%. Aim: This study focuses on the impact of seasonality on the risk of human exposure (RHE) to Schistosoma mansoni, defined as the total number of cercariae (the free-living life stage that infects humans) shed from all Biomphalaria pfeifferi snails collected at a site using standardized methods. We focus on RHE because it is rarely quantified and a recent study demonstrated that snails stop shedding cercariae when snail densities increase and thus per capita snail resources become limited [2], suggesting that densities of snails might not be directly proportional to RHE to schistosomes. Method: We sampled four water access points in three villages every other week during the early (Dry1) and later dry seasons (Dry2) and the rainy season, quantifying the abundance of infected and non-infected snail intermediate hosts, cercariae released per infected snail, and water chemistry. We used simple and multiple linear regressions to assess how seasonality and environmental parameters affect non-infected andmore »infected snail abundance and RHE. Results: Although RHE was found across all seasons, the abundance of infected and non-infected snail intermediate hosts and cercariae, as well as prevalence (23.71%), were all highest in the rainy season. In the rainy season, RHE was positively associated with the density of snail hosts and their periphyton food resource. Conclusion: Although previous studies have examined the influence of seasonality on snail densities, few studies have explored the effects of seasonality on cercarial densities, which is the primary source of infection to humans. Our study demonstrates that cercarial densities are greater in the rainy season than in the early or late dry seasons. Given that cercarial densities directly pose risk of infection to humans, unlike non-infected or infected snails, these finding should help to inform decision making and schistosomiasis control efforts in West Africa.« less