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It is now well established that galaxies have different morphologies, gas contents, and star formation rates (SFR) in dense environments like galaxy clusters. The impact of environmental density extends to several virial radii, and galaxies appear to be pre-processed in filaments and groups before falling into the cluster. Our goal is to quantify this pre-processing in terms of gas content and SFR, as a function of density in cosmic filaments. We have observed the two first CO transitions in 163 galaxies with the IRAM-30 m telescope, and added 82 more measurements from the literature, thus forming a sample of 245 galaxies in the filaments around the Virgo cluster. We gathered HI-21cm measurements from the literature and observed 69 galaxies with the Nançay telescope to complete our sample. We compare our filament galaxies with comparable samples from the Virgo cluster and with the isolated galaxies of the AMIGA sample. We find a clear progression from field galaxies to filament and cluster galaxies for decreasing SFR, increasing fraction of galaxies in the quenching phase, an increasing proportion of early-type galaxies, and decreasing gas content. Galaxies in the quenching phase, defined as having a SFR below one-third of that of the main sequencemore »
The formation of the milky way halo and its dwarf satellites: a NLTE-1D abundance analysis. IV. Segue 1, Triangulum
ii, and Coma Berenices UFDsABSTRACT We present atmospheric parameters and abundances for chemical elements from carbon to barium in metal-poor stars in Segue 1 (seven stars), Coma Berenices (three stars), and Triangulum ii (one star) ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs). The effective temperatures rely on new photometric observations in the visible and infra-red bands, obtained with the 2.5 m telescope of the SAI MSU Caucasian observatory. Abundances of up to fourteen chemical elements were derived under the non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line formation, and LTE abundances were obtained for up to five more elements. For the first time, we present abundance of oxygen in Seg 1 S1 and S4, silicon in ComaBer S2 and Tri ii S40, potassium in Seg 1 S1−S6 and ComaBer S1−S3, and barium in Seg 1 S7. Three stars in Segue 1, two stars in Coma Berenices, and Triangulum ii star have very low [Na/Mg] of −1.08 to −1.67 dex, which is usually attributed in the literature to an odd–even effect produced by nucleosynthesis in massive metal-free stars. We interpret this chemical property as a footprint of first stars, which is not blurred due to a small number of nucleosynthesis events that contributed to chemical abundance patterns of the sample stars. Our NLTE abundances of Sr and Ba in Coma Berenices,more »