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  1. The detection of the fullerenes C60 and C70 in the interstellar medium (ISM) has transformed our understanding of chemical complexity in space. These discoveries also raise the possibility for the presence of even larger molecules in astrophysical environments. Here we report in situ heating of analog silicon carbide (SiC) presolar grains using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). These heating experiments are designed to simulate the temperature conditions occurring in post-AGB stellar envelopes. Our experimental findings reveal that heating the analog SiC grains to the point of decomposition initially yields hemispherical C60-sized nanostructures, with five- and six-membered rings, which transform into multiwalledmore »carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) if held isothermally >2 min. These MWCNTs are certainly larger than any of the currently observed interstellar fullerene species, both in overall size and number of C atoms. These experimental simulations suggest that such MWCNTs are likely to form in post-AGB circumstellar material, where the structures, along with the smaller fullerenes, are subsequently injected into the ISM.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 27, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 14, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 19, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 15, 2022
  5. It is well known that the lipid distribution in the bilayer leaflets of mammalian plasma membranes (PMs) is not symmetric. Despite this, model membrane studies have largely relied on chemically symmetric model membranes for the study of lipid–lipid and lipid–protein interactions. This is primarily due to the difficulty in preparing stable, asymmetric model membranes that are amenable to biophysical studies. However, in the last 20 years, efforts have been made in producing more biologically faithful model membranes. Here, we review several recently developed experimental and computational techniques for the robust generation of asymmetric model membranes and highlight a new andmore »particularly promising technique to study membrane asymmetry.« less
  6. Shade, Ashley (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Microbiomes play essential roles in the health and function of animal and plant hosts and drive nutrient cycling across ecosystems. Integrating novel trait-based approaches with ecological theory can facilitate the prediction of microbial functional traits important for ecosystem functioning and health. In particular, the yield-acquisition-stress (Y-A-S) framework considers dominant microbial life history strategies across gradients of resource availability and stress. However, microbiomes are dynamic, and spatial and temporal shifts in taxonomic and trait composition can affect ecosystem functions. We posit that extending the Y-A-S framework to microbiomes during succession and across biogeographic gradients can lead to generalizable rules formore »how microbiomes and their functions respond to resources and stress across space, time, and diverse ecosystems. We demonstrate the potential of this framework by applying it to the microbiomes hosted by the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea , which have clear successional trajectories and are distributed across a broad climatic gradient.« less
  7. We describe a self-catalyzing photoredox polymerization system for the modular generation of macromolecular photocatalysts. Specifically, we designed a photoactive eosin Y-derived monomer that can induce photoelectron/energy transfer, while simultaneously partaking in reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer polymerization as a monomer, affording polymer catalysts with tunable eosin Y incorporations.
  8. Acidification of the ocean due to high atmospheric CO 2 levels may increase the resilience of diatoms causing dramatic shifts in abiotic and biotic cycles with lasting implications on marine ecosystems. Here, we report a potential bioindicator of a shift in the resilience of a coastal and centric model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana under elevated CO 2 . Specifically, we have discovered, through EGFP-tagging, a plastid membrane localized putative Na + (K + )/H + antiporter that is significantly upregulated at >800 ppm CO 2 , with a potentially important role in maintaining pH homeostasis. Notably, transcript abundance of this antiportermore »gene was relatively low and constant over the diel cycle under contemporary CO 2 conditions. In future acidified oceanic conditions, dramatic oscillation with >10-fold change between nighttime (high) and daytime (low) transcript abundances of the antiporter was associated with increased resilience of T. pseudonana . By analyzing metatranscriptomic data from the Tara Oceans project, we demonstrate that phylogenetically diverse diatoms express homologs of this antiporter across the globe. We propose that the differential between night- and daytime transcript levels of the antiporter could serve as a bioindicator of a shift in the resilience of diatoms in response to high CO 2 conditions in marine environments.« less
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 25, 2022