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We study a heterogeneous twotier wireless sensor network in which N heterogeneous access points (APs) collect sensing data from densely distributed sensors and then forward the data to M heterogeneous fusion centers (FCs). This heterogeneous node deployment problem is modeled as a quantization problem with distortion defined as the total power consumption of the network. The necessary conditions of the optimal AP and FC node deployment are explored in this paper. We provide a variation of Voronoi diagrams as the optimal cell partition for this network, and show that each AP should be placed between its connected FC and the geometric center of its cell partition. In addition, we propose a heterogeneous twotier Lloydlike algorithm to optimize the node deployment. Simulation results show that our proposed algorithm outperforms the existing methods like Minimum Energy Routing, Agglomerative Clustering, and Divisive Clustering, on average.

In this paper, we consider the amplifyandforward relay networks in mmWave systems and propose a hybrid precoder/combiner design approach. The phaseonly RF precoding/ combining matrices are first designed to support multistream transmission, where we compensate the phase for the eigenmodes of the channel. Then, the baseband precoders/combiners are performed to achieve the maximum mutual information. Based on the data processing inequality for the mutual information, we first jointly design the baseband source and relay nodes to maximize the mutual information before the destination baseband receiver. The proposed lowcomplexity iterative algorithm for the source and relay nodes is based on the equivalence between mutual information maximization and the weighted MMSE. After we obtain the optimal precoder and combiner for the source and relay nodes, we implement the MMSESIC filter at the baseband receiver to keep the mutual information unchanged, thus obtaining the optimal mutual information for the whole relay system. Simulation results show that our algorithm achieves better performance with lower complexity compared with other algorithms in the literature.

In many quantization problems, the distortion function is given by the Euclidean metric to measure the distance of a source sample to any given reproduction point of the quantizer. We will in this work regard distortion functions, which are additively and multiplicatively weighted for each reproduction point resulting in a heterogeneous quantization problem, as used for example in deployment problems of sensor networks. Whereas, normally in such problems, the average distortion is minimized for given weights (parameters), we will optimize the quantization problem over all weights, i.e., we tune or control the distortion functions in our favor. For a uniform source distribution in onedimension, we derive the unique minimizer, given as the uniform scalar quantizer with an optimal common weight. By numerical simulations, we demonstrate that this result extends to twodimensions where asymptotically the parameter optimized quantizer is the hexagonal lattice with common weights. As an application, we will determine the optimal deployment of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to provide a wireless communication to ground terminals under a minimal communication power cost. Here, the optimal weights relate to the optimal flight heights of the UAVs.

The highly sparse nature of propagation channels and the restricted use of radio frequency (RF) chains at transceivers limit the performance of millimeter wave (mmWave) multipleinput multipleoutput (MIMO) systems. Introducing reconfigurable antennas to mmWave can offer an additional degree of freedom on designing mmWave MIMO systems. This paper provides a theoretical framework for studying the mmWave MIMO with reconfigurable antennas. We present an architecture of reconfigurable mmWave MIMO with beamspace hybrid analogdigital beamformers and reconfigurable antennas at both the transmitter and the receiver. We show that employing reconfigurable antennas can provide throughput gain for the mmWave MIMO. We derive the expression for the average throughput gain of using reconfigurable antennas, and further simplify the expression by considering the case of large number of reconfiguration states. In addition, we propose a lowcomplexity algorithm for the reconfiguration state and beam selection, which achieves nearly the same throughput performance as the optimal selection of reconfiguration state and beams by exhaustive search.