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  1. Abstract

    The diversity of cell types is a challenge for quantifying aging and its reversal. Here we develop ‘aging clocks’ based on single-cell transcriptomics to characterize cell-type-specific aging and rejuvenation. We generated single-cell transcriptomes from the subventricular zone neurogenic region of 28 mice, tiling ages from young to old. We trained single-cell-based regression models to predict chronological age and biological age (neural stem cell proliferation capacity). These aging clocks are generalizable to independent cohorts of mice, other regions of the brains, and other species. To determine if these aging clocks could quantify transcriptomic rejuvenation, we generated single-cell transcriptomic datasets of neurogenic regions for two interventions—heterochronic parabiosis and exercise. Aging clocks revealed that heterochronic parabiosis and exercise reverse transcriptomic aging in neurogenic regions, but in different ways. This study represents the first development of high-resolution aging clocks from single-cell transcriptomic data and demonstrates their application to quantify transcriptomic rejuvenation.

  2. New phases of matter emerge at the edge of magnetic instabilities. In local moment systems, such as heavy fermions, the magnetism can be destabilized by pressure, chemical doping, and, rarely, by magnetic field, towards a zero-temperature transition at a quantum critical point (QCP). Even more rare are instances of QCPs induced by pressure or doping in itinerant moment systems, with no known examples of analogous field-induced T = 0 transitions. Here we report the discovery of a new itinerant antiferromagnet with no magnetic constituents, in single crystals of Ti3Cu4 with T_N = 11.3 K. Band structure calculations point to an orbital-selective, spin density wave ground state, a consequence of the square net structural motif in Ti3Cu4. A small magnetic field, H_C = 4.87 T, suppresses the long-range order via a continuous second-order transition, resulting in a field-induced QCP. The magnetic Grüneisen ratio diverges as H→H_C and T→0, with a sign change at H_C and 1/T scaling at H = H_C, providing evidence from thermodynamic measurements for quantum criticality for H∥c. Non-Fermi liquid (NFL) to Fermi liquid (FL) crossover is observed close to the QCP, as revealed by the power law behavior of the electrical resistivity.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    New phases of matter emerge at the edge of magnetic instabilities, which can occur in materials with moments that are localized, itinerant or intermediate between these extremes. In local moment systems, such as heavy fermions, the magnetism can be tuned towards a zero-temperature transition at a quantum critical point (QCP) via pressure, chemical doping, and, rarely, magnetic field. By contrast, in itinerant moment systems, QCPs are more rare, and they are induced by pressure or doping; there are no known examples of field induced transitions. This means that no universal behaviour has been established across the whole itinerant-to-local moment range—a substantial gap in our knowledge of quantum criticality. Here we report an itinerant antiferromagnet, Ti3Cu4, that can be tuned to a QCP by a small magnetic field. We see signatures of quantum criticality and the associated non-Fermi liquid behaviour in thermodynamic and transport measurements, while band structure calculations point to an orbital-selective, spin density wave ground state, a consequence of the square net structural motif in Ti3Cu4. Ti3Cu4thus provides a platform for the comparison and generalisation of quantum critical behaviour across the whole spectrum of magnetism.

  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 7, 2023
  5. Abstract Spin-valley locking in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides has attracted enormous interest, since it offers potential for valleytronic and optoelectronic applications. Such an exotic electronic state has sparsely been seen in bulk materials. Here, we report spin-valley locking in a Dirac semimetal BaMnSb 2 . This is revealed by comprehensive studies using first principles calculations, tight-binding and effective model analyses, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements. Moreover, this material also exhibits a stacked quantum Hall effect (QHE). The spin-valley degeneracy extracted from the QHE is close to 2. This result, together with the Landau level spin splitting, further confirms the spin-valley locking picture. In the extreme quantum limit, we also observed a plateau in the z -axis resistance, suggestive of a two-dimensional chiral surface state present in the quantum Hall state. These findings establish BaMnSb 2 as a rare platform for exploring coupled spin and valley physics in bulk single crystals and accessing 3D interacting topological states.