skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Jain, Eakta"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Eye-tracking is a critical source of information for understanding human behavior and developing future mixed-reality technology. Eye-tracking enables applications that classify user activity or predict user intent. However, eye-tracking datasets collected during common virtual reality tasks have also been shown to enable unique user identification, which creates a privacy risk. In this paper, we focus on the problem of user re-identification from eye-tracking features. We adapt standardized privacy definitions of k-anonymity and plausible deniability to protect datasets of eye-tracking features, and evaluate performance against re-identification by a standard biometric identification model on seven VR datasets. Our results demonstrate that re-identification goes down to chance levels for the privatized datasets, even as utility is preserved to levels higher than 72% accuracy in document type classification. 
    more » « less
  2. Behavior-based authentication methods are actively being developed for XR. In particular, gaze-based methods promise continuous authentication of remote users. However, gaze behavior depends on the task being performed. Identification rate is typically highest when comparing data from the same task. In this study, we compared authentication performance using VR gaze data during random dot viewing, 360-degree image viewing, and a nuclear training simulation. We found that within-task authentication performed best for image viewing (72%). The implication for practitioners is to integrate image viewing into a VR workflow to collect gaze data that is viable for authentication. 
    more » « less
  3. This paper presents insights from the PrXR workshop conducted at IEEE VR 2021. We identified several topic areas related to privacy and security risks for virtual, augmented, and mixed-reality (XR) applications. Risks are presented from the perspective of the XR community. We attempt to thematically group the workshop findings and highlight the challenges brought up by the participants. The identified research topics serve as a roadmap to push forward privacy and security research in the context of XR. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
  5. Nuclear reactor safety is unique in that even after an incident is identified and the reactor shut down, the possibility of damage to people and environment does not stop: there is a long tail to the incident due to decay heat and potential for radiation leakage, which must also be contained properly, as exemplified in Fukushima where most radiation releases happened after initial earthquake and plant shut-down. Nuclear reactors generate close to 20% of the energy required by our nation. There is increasing interest in nuclear power as a low emissions alternative to fossil fuel-based power. Investments in the next generation of nuclear power plants include many nuclear startups such as NuScale and high-profile investments by Bill Gates’ Terra Power. Nuclear reactor operators are critical personnel who operate nuclear reactors, monitor the health of the operation, and are the first line of defense in case of an incident. Though the Nuclear Regulatory Commission creates and maintains standards and procedures for nuclear safety, their programmatic mandate involves are focused on existing technology, in the form of commercial nuclear power plants and other uses of nuclear materials through licensing, inspection and enforcement activities. This report summarizes the collected thoughts and insights from a diverse working group on the intersection of next generation technology with the training of future nuclear reactor operators. 
    more » « less
  6. Abstract

    The importance of eyes for virtual characters stems from the intrinsic social cues in a person's eyes. While previous work on computer generated eyes has considered realism and naturalness, there has been little investigation into how details in the eye animation impact the perception of an avatar's internal emotional state. We present three large scale experiments (N≈500) that investigate the extent to which viewers can identify if an avatar is scared. We find that participants can identify a scared avatar with accuracy using cues in the eyes including pupil size variation, gaze, and blinks. Because eye trackers return pupil diameter in addition to gaze, our experiments inform practitioners that animating the pupil correctly will add expressiveness to a virtual avatar with negligible additional cost. These findings also have implications for creating expressive eyes in intelligent conversational agents and social robots.

    more » « less