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  1. Abstract

    We utilize a sample of 45 local star-forming galaxies (z < 0.18) from the COS Legacy Archive Spectroscopic SurveY (CLASSY) to analyze the N/O versus O/H relationship. Nitrogen and oxygen are ejected into the interstellar medium at different timescales by intermediate-mass and massive stars. Therefore, the N/O abundance ratio with respect to the gas-phase metallicity (O/H) is a powerful tool to improve our interpretation on galaxy formation and evolution. In order to analyze such a relation, we derive the the electron density and temperature for the whole sample, allowing for accurate determinations of N/O and the metallicity. We compare our results with an additional sample of dwarf star-forming galaxies and extragalactic H iiregions. We also analyze the N/O ratio with the stellar mass and star formation rate.

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  2. Abstract

    Galaxy formation and evolution are regulated by the feedback from galactic winds. Absorption lines provide the most widely available probe of winds. However, since most data only provide information integrated along the line of sight, they do not directly constrain the radial structure of the outflows. In this paper, we present a method to directly measure the gas electron density in outflows (ne), which in turn yields estimates of outflow cloud properties (e.g., density, volume filling factor, and sizes/masses). We also estimate the distance (rn) from the starburst at which the observed densities are found. We focus on 22 local star-forming galaxies primarily from the COS Legacy Archive Spectroscopic SurveY (CLASSY). In half of them, we detect absorption lines from fine-structure excited transitions of Siii(i.e., Siii*). We determinenefrom relative column densities of Siiiand Siii*, given Siii* originates from collisional excitation by free electrons. We find that the derivednecorrelates well with the galaxy’s star formation rate per unit area. From photoionization models or assuming the outflow is in pressure equilibrium with the wind fluid, we getrn∼ 1–2r*or ∼5r*, respectively, wherer*is the starburst radius. Based on comparisons to theoretical models of multiphase outflows, nearly all of the outflows have cloud sizes large enough for the clouds to survive their interaction with the hot wind fluid. Most of these measurements are the first ever for galactic winds detected in absorption lines and, thus, will provide important constraints for future models of galactic winds.

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  3. Abstract

    Lyαline profiles are a powerful probe of interstellar medium (ISM) structure, outflow speed, and Lyman-continuum escape fraction. In this paper, we present the Lyαline profiles of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) Legacy Archive Spectroscopic SurveY, a sample rich in spectroscopic analogs of reionization-era galaxies. A large fraction of the spectra show a complex profile, consisting of a double-peaked Lyαemission profile in the bottom of a damped, Lyαabsorption trough. Such profiles reveal an inhomogeneous ISM. We successfully fit the damped Lyαabsorption and the Lyαemission profiles separately, but with complementary covering factors, a surprising result because this approach requires no Lyαexchange between high-NHiand low-NHipaths. The combined distribution of column densities is qualitatively similar to the bimodal distributions observed in numerical simulations. We find an inverse relation between Lyαpeak separation and the [Oiii]/[Oii] flux ratio, confirming that the covering fraction of Lyman-continuum-thin sightlines increases as the Lyαpeak separation decreases. We combine measurements of Lyαpeak separation and Lyαred peak asymmetry in a diagnostic diagram, which identifies six Lyman-continuum leakers in the COS Legacy Archive Spectrocopy SurveY (CLASSY) sample. We find a strong correlation between the Lyαtrough velocity and the outflow velocity measured from interstellar absorption lines. We argue that greater vignetting of the blueshifted Lyαpeak, relative to the redshifted peak, is the source of the well-known discrepancy between shell-model parameters and directly measured outflow properties. The CLASSY sample illustrates how scattering of Lyαphotons outside the spectroscopic aperture reshapes Lyαprofiles because the distances to these compact starbursts span a large range.

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  4. Abstract Detailed analyses of high-redshift galaxies are challenging because these galaxies are faint, but this difficulty can be overcome with gravitational lensing, in which the magnification of the flux enables spectroscopy with a high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N). We present the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager (ESI) spectrum of the newly discovered z = 2.79 lensed galaxy SDSS J1059+4251. With an observed magnitude F814W = 18.8 and a magnification factor μ = 31 ± 3, J1059+4251 is both highly magnified and intrinsically luminous, about two magnitudes brighter than M UV * at z ∼ 2–3. With a stellar mass M * = (3.22 ± 0.20) × 10 10 M ⊙ , star formation rate SFR = 50 ± 7 M ⊙ yr −1 , and stellar metallicity Z * ≃ 0.15–0.5 Z ⊙ , J1059+4251 is typical of bright star-forming galaxies at similar redshifts. Thanks to the high S/N and the spectral resolution of the ESI spectrum, we are able to separate the interstellar and stellar features and derive properties that would be inaccessible without the aid of the lensing. We find evidence of a gas outflow with speeds up to −1000 km s −1 , and of an inflow that is probably due to accreting material seen along a favorable line of sight. We measure relative elemental abundances from the interstellar absorption lines and find that α -capture elements are overabundant compared to iron-peak elements, suggestive of rapid star formation. However, this trend may also be affected by dust depletion. Thanks to the high data quality, our results represent a reliable step forward in the characterization of typical galaxies at early cosmic epochs. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Deciphering the distribution of metals throughout galaxies is fundamental in our understanding of galaxy evolution. Nearby, low-metallicity, star-forming dwarf galaxies, in particular, can offer detailed insight into the metal-dependent processes that may have occurred within galaxies in the early Universe. Here, we present VLT/MUSE observations of one such system, JKB 18, a blue diffuse dwarf galaxy with a metallicity of only 12 + log(O/H)=7.6 ± 0.2 (∼0.08 Z⊙). Using high spatial resolution integral-field spectroscopy of the entire system, we calculate chemical abundances for individual H ii regions using the direct method and derive oxygen abundance maps using strong-line metallicity diagnostics. With large-scale dispersions in O/H, N/H, and N/O of ∼0.5–0.6 dex and regions harbouring chemical abundances outside this 1σ distribution, we deem JKB 18 to be chemically inhomogeneous. We explore this finding in the context of other chemically inhomogeneous dwarf galaxies and conclude that neither the accretion of metal-poor gas, short mixing time-scales or self-enrichment from Wolf–Rayet stars are accountable. Using a galaxy-scale, multiphase, hydrodynamical simulation of a low-mass dwarf galaxy, we find that chemical inhomogeneities of this level may be attributable to the removal of gas via supernovae and the specific timing of the observations with respect to star formation activity. This study not only draws attention to the fact that dwarf galaxies can be chemically inhomogeneous, but also that the methods used in the assessment of this characteristic can be subject to bias. 
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  6. null (Ed.)
  7. Abstract The gravitationally lensed star WHL 0137–LS, nicknamed Earendel, was identified with a photometric redshift z phot = 6.2 ± 0.1 based on images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. Here we present James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Camera images of Earendel in eight filters spanning 0.8–5.0 μ m. In these higher-resolution images, Earendel remains a single unresolved point source on the lensing critical curve, increasing the lower limit on the lensing magnification to μ > 4000 and restricting the source plane radius further to r < 0.02 pc, or ∼4000 au. These new observations strengthen the conclusion that Earendel is best explained by an individual star or multiple star system and support the previous photometric redshift estimate. Fitting grids of stellar spectra to our photometry yields a stellar temperature of T eff ≃ 13,000–16,000 K, assuming the light is dominated by a single star. The delensed bolometric luminosity in this case ranges from log ( L ) = 5.8 to 6.6 L ⊙ , which is in the range where one expects luminous blue variable stars. Follow-up observations, including JWST NIRSpec scheduled for late 2022, are needed to further unravel the nature of this object, which presents a unique opportunity to study massive stars in the first billion years of the universe. 
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  8. Abstract

    Far-ultraviolet (FUV; ∼1200–2000 Å) spectra are fundamental to our understanding of star-forming galaxies, providing a unique window on massive stellar populations, chemical evolution, feedback processes, and reionization. The launch of the James Webb Space Telescope will soon usher in a new era, pushing the UV spectroscopic frontier to higher redshifts than ever before; however, its success hinges on a comprehensive understanding of the massive star populations and gas conditions that power the observed UV spectral features. This requires a level of detail that is only possible with a combination of ample wavelength coverage, signal-to-noise, spectral-resolution, and sample diversity that has not yet been achieved by any FUV spectral database. We present the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph Legacy Spectroscopic Survey (CLASSY) treasury and its first high-level science product, the CLASSY atlas. CLASSY builds on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) archive to construct the first high-quality (S/N1500 Å≳ 5/resel), high-resolution (R∼ 15,000) FUV spectral database of 45 nearby (0.002 <z< 0.182) star-forming galaxies. The CLASSY atlas, available to the public via the CLASSY website, is the result of optimally extracting and coadding 170 archival+new spectra from 312 orbits of HST observations. The CLASSY sample covers a broad range of properties including stellar mass (6.2 < logM(M) < 10.1), star formation rate (−2.0 < log SFR (Myr−1) < +1.6), direct gas-phase metallicity (7.0 < 12+log(O/H) < 8.8), ionization (0.5 < O32< 38.0), reddening (0.02 <E(BV) < 0.67), and nebular density (10 <ne(cm−3) < 1120). CLASSY is biased to UV-bright star-forming galaxies, resulting in a sample that is consistent with thez∼ 0 mass–metallicity relationship, but is offset to higher star formation rates by roughly 2 dex, similar toz≳ 2 galaxies. This unique set of properties makes the CLASSY atlas the benchmark training set for star-forming galaxies across cosmic time.

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