skip to main content


The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 11:00 PM ET on Friday, September 29 until 11:59 PM ET on Saturday, September 30 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "James, C."

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. For millimeter-wave power applications, GaN high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) are often grown epitaxially on a high-purity semi-insulating c-axis 4H-SiC substrate. For these anisotropic hexagonal materials, the design and modeling of microstrip and coplanar interconnects require detailed knowledge of both the ordinary permittivity ε⊥ and the extraordinary permittivity εǁ perpendicular and parallel, respectively, to the c-axis. However, conventional dielectric characterization techniques make it difficult to measure εǁ alone or to separate εǁ from ε⊥. As a result, there is little data for εǁ, especially at millimeter-wave frequencies. This work demonstrates techniques for characterizing εǁ of 4H SiC using substrate-integrated waveguides (SIWs) or SIW resonators. The measured εǁ on seven SIWs and eleven resonators from 110 to 170 GHz is within ±1% of 10.2. Because the SIWs and resonators can be fabricated on the same SiC substrate together with HEMTs and other devices, they can be conveniently measured on-wafer for precise material-device correlation. Such permittivity characterization techniques can be extended to other frequencies, materials, and orientations. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 3, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 13, 2024
  6. Abstract

    Tunicates are an evolutionarily significant subphylum of marine chordates, with their phylogenetic position as the sister-group to Vertebrata making them key to unraveling our own deep time origin. Tunicates greatly vary with regards to morphology, ecology, and life cycle, but little is known about the early evolution of the group, e.g. whether their last common ancestor lived freely in the water column or attached to the seafloor. Additionally, tunicates have a poor fossil record, which includes only one taxon with preserved soft-tissues. Here we describeMegasiphon thylakosnov., a 500-million-year-old tunicate from the Marjum Formation of Utah, which features a barrel-shaped body with two long siphons and prominent longitudinal muscles. The ascidiacean-like body of this new species suggests two alternative hypotheses for early tunicate evolution. The most likely scenario positsM. thylakosbelongs to stem-group Tunicata, suggesting that a biphasic life cycle, with a planktonic larva and a sessile epibenthic adult, is ancestral for this entire subphylum. Alternatively, a position within the crown-group indicates that the divergence between appendicularians and all other tunicates occurred 50 million years earlier than currently estimated based on molecular clocks. Ultimately,M. thylakosdemonstrates that fundamental components of the modern tunicate body plan were already established shortly after the Cambrian Explosion.

    more » « less
  7. Mitochondria import nearly all of their approximately 1,000–2,000 constituent proteins from the cytosol across their double-membrane envelope1,2,3,4,5. Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that the conserved protein translocase, termed the TIM23 complex, mediates import of presequence-containing proteins (preproteins) into the mitochondrial matrix and inner membrane. Among about ten different subunits of the TIM23 complex, the essential multipass membrane protein Tim23, together with the evolutionarily related protein Tim17, has long been postulated to form a protein-conducting channel6,7,8,9,10,11. However, the mechanism by which these subunits form a translocation path in the membrane and enable the import process remains unclear due to a lack of structural information. Here we determined the cryo-electron microscopy structure of the core TIM23 complex (heterotrimeric Tim17–Tim23–Tim44) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Contrary to the prevailing model, Tim23 and Tim17 themselves do not form a water-filled channel, but instead have separate, lipid-exposed concave cavities that face in opposite directions. Our structural and biochemical analyses show that the cavity of Tim17, but not Tim23, forms the protein translocation path, whereas Tim23 probably has a structural role. The results further suggest that, during translocation of substrate polypeptides, the nonessential subunit Mgr2 seals the lateral opening of the Tim17 cavity to facilitate the translocation process. We propose a new model for the TIM23-mediated protein import and sorting mechanism, a central pathway in mitochondrial biogenesis. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 21, 2024
  8. Amon, Cristina (Ed.)
    Abstract Methane clathrates on continental margins contain the largest stores of hydrocarbons on Earth, yet the role of biomolecules in clathrate formation and stability remains almost completely unknown. Here, we report new methane clathrate-binding proteins (CbpAs) of bacterial origin discovered in metagenomes from gas clathrate-bearing ocean sediments. CbpAs show similar suppression of methane clathrate growth as the commercial gas clathrate inhibitor polyvinylpyrrolidone and inhibit clathrate growth at lower concentrations than antifreeze proteins (AFPs) previously tested. Unlike AFPs, CbpAs are selective for clathrate over ice. CbpA3 adopts a nonglobular, extended structure with an exposed hydrophobic surface, and, unexpectedly, its TxxxAxxxAxx motif common to AFPs is buried and not involved in clathrate binding. Instead, simulations and mutagenesis suggest a bipartite interaction of CbpAs with methane clathrate, with the pyrrolidine ring of a highly conserved proline residue mediating binding by filling empty clathrate cages. The discovery that CbpAs exert such potent control on methane clathrate properties implies that biomolecules from native sediment bacteria may be important for clathrate stability and habitability. 
    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024