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  1. Abstract Germanium-based oxides such as rutile GeO 2 are garnering attention owing to their wide band gaps and the prospects of ambipolar doping for application in high-power devices. Here, we present the use of germanium tetraisopropoxide (GTIP), a metal-organic chemical precursor, as a source of germanium for the demonstration of hybrid molecular beam epitaxy for germanium-containing compounds. We use Sn 1- x Ge x O 2 and SrSn 1- x Ge x O 3 as model systems to demonstrate our synthesis method. A combination of high-resolution X-ray diffraction, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the successful growth of epitaxial rutile Sn 1- x Ge x O 2 on TiO 2 (001) substrates up to x  = 0.54 and coherent perovskite SrSn 1- x Ge x O 3 on GdScO 3 (110) substrates up to x  = 0.16. Characterization and first-principles calculations corroborate that germanium occupies the tin site, as opposed to the strontium site. These findings confirm the viability of the GTIP precursor for the growth of germanium-containing oxides by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy, thus providing a promising route to high-quality perovskite germanate films.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023