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  1. Haplodiploidy and paternal genome elimination (HD/PGE) are common in invertebrates, having evolved at least two dozen times, all from male heterogamety (i.e., systems with X chromosomes). However, why X chromosomes are important for the evolution of HD/PGE remains debated. The Haploid Viability Hypothesis posits that X-linked genes promote the evolution of male haploidy by facilitating purging recessive deleterious mutations. The Intragenomic Conflict Hypothesis holds that conflict between genes drives genetic system turnover; under this model, X-linked genes could promote the evolution of male haploidy due to conflicts with autosomes over sex ratios and genetic transmission. We studied lineages where we can distinguish these hypotheses: species with germline PGE that retain an XX/X0 sex determination system (gPGE+X). Because evolving PGE in these cases involves changes in transmission without increases in male hemizygosity, a high degree of X linkage in these systems is predicted by the Intragenomic Conflict Hypothesis but not the Haploid Viability Hypothesis. To quantify the degree of X linkage, we sequenced and compared 7 gPGE+X species’ genomes with 11 related species with typical XX/XY or XX/X0 genetic systems, representing three transitions to gPGE. We find highly increased X linkage in both modern and ancestral genomes of gPGE+X species comparedmore »to non-gPGE relatives and recover a significant positive correlation between percent X linkage and the evolution of gPGE. These empirical results substantiate longstanding proposals for a role for intragenomic conflict in the evolution of genetic systems such as HD/PGE.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 7, 2023