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  1. We propose AccHashtag, the first framework for high-accuracy detection of fault-injection attacks on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs) with provable bounds on detection performance. Recent literature in fault-injection attacks shows the severe DNN accuracy degradation caused by bit flips. In this scenario, the attacker changes a few DNN weight bits during execution by injecting faults to the dynamic random-access memory (DRAM). To detect bit flips, AccHashtag extracts a unique signature from the benign DNN prior to deployment. The signature is used to validate the model’s integrity and verify the inference output on the fly. We propose a novel sensitivity analysis that identifies the most vulnerable DNN layers to the fault-injection attack. The DNN signature is constructed by encoding the weights in vulnerable layers using a low-collision hash function. During DNN inference, new hashes are extracted from the target layers and compared against the ground-truth signatures. AccHashtag incorporates a lightweight methodology that allows for real-time fault detection on embedded platforms. We devise a specialized compute core for AccHashtag on field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) to facilitate online hash generation in parallel to DNN execution. Extensive evaluations with the state-of-the-art bit-flip attack on various DNNs demonstrate the competitive advantage of AccHashtag in terms of both attack detection and execution overhead. 
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