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  1. Abstract

    Recently, electrical discharges have been identified as a potentially significant source of the atmosphere's most important oxidant, the hydroxyl radical. Measurements of hydroxyl, the closely related hydroperoxyl radical, and the nitrogen oxides from sparks and subvisible discharges were made in the laboratory under different environmental and electrical conditions representing those found in the troposphere. However, there were still several conditions not yet investigated that could impact hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl production in electrical discharges. In this study, the production of electrically generated hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl (LHOx) and nitrogen oxides (LNOx) was measured under three new conditions not tested previously, including lower pressure, different temperatures, and the presence of cloud droplet‐sized water droplets. In spark discharges, LHOxwas mostly independent of pressure, increased with increasing temperature, and was unaffected by the water droplets. LNOxgeneration was independent of temperature from −10 to 40°C and the presence of water droplets, but increased 1.5‐fold with decreasing pressure. LNOxgeneration was also found to be sensitive to changes in spark intensity and air flow in the laboratory setup. Increasing temperature also made it more likely that a discharge was visible instead of subvisible, but did not impact LHOxproduction in subvisible discharges. Even under these new conditions, the laboratory results agree with results of LHOxfrom a field campaign, demonstrating the relevance of the laboratory experiments to the atmosphere.

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    We report the discovery of two mini-Neptunes in near 2:1 resonance orbits (P = 7.610303 d for HIP 113103 b and P  = 14.245651 d for HIP 113103 c) around the adolescent K-star HIP 113103 (TIC 121490076). The planet system was first identified from the TESS mission, and was confirmed via additional photometric and spectroscopic observations, including a ∼17.5 h observation for the transits of both planets using ESA CHEOPS. We place ≤4.5 min and ≤2.5 min limits on the absence of transit timing variations over the 3 yr photometric baseline, allowing further constraints on the orbital eccentricities of the system beyond that available from the photometric transit duration alone. With a planetary radius of Rp  =  $1.829_{-0.067}^{+0.096}$ R⊕, HIP 113103 b resides within the radius gap, and this might provide invaluable information on the formation disparities between super-Earths and mini-Neptunes. Given the larger radius Rp  = $2.40_{-0.08}^{+0.10}$ R⊕ for HIP 113103 c, and close proximity of both planets to HIP 113103, it is likely that HIP 113103 b might have lost (or is still losing) its primordial atmosphere. We therefore present simulated atmospheric transmission spectra of both planets using JWST, HST, and Twinkle. It demonstrates a potential metallicity difference (due to differences in their evolution) would be a challenge to detect if the atmospheres are in chemical equilibrium. As one of the brightest multi sub-Neptune planet systems suitable for atmosphere follow up, HIP 113103 b and HIP 113103 c could provide insight on planetary evolution for the sub-Neptune K-star population.

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  3. Abstract

    Prodigious amounts of the hydroxyl radical (OH) are generated in the laboratory on tree leaves by corona discharges, which also occur on trees during thunderstorms. Production rates of OH and HO2depend on the applied electric field generating the corona discharge, leaf dryness, and the presence of liquid water on the leaf. However, they are independent of leaf type and corona discharge polarity for a given corona ultraviolet (UV) flux. Production rates of OH, HO2, and O3strongly correlate with corona UV flux. Although the contribution of corona‐produced OH to total global OH production is unlikely to be important, corona‐generated OH is likely a few orders of magnitude greater than oxidation by known processes in the vicinity of the affected leaves, potentially influencing atmospheric oxidation and tree and forest ecology.

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  4. We report the discovery and characterization of two small transiting planets orbiting the bright M3.0V star TOI-1468 (LSPM J0106+1913), whose transit signals were detected in the photometric time series in three sectors of the TESS mission. We confirm the planetary nature of both of them using precise radial velocity measurements from the CARMENES and MAROON-X spectrographs, and supplement them with ground-based transit photometry. A joint analysis of all these data reveals that the shorter-period planet, TOI-1468 b ( P b = 1.88 d), has a planetary mass of M b = 3.21 ± 0.24 M ⊕ and a radius of R b = 1.280 −0.039 +0.038 R ⊕ , resulting in a density of ρ b = 8.39 −0.92 +1.05 g cm −3 , which is consistent with a mostly rocky composition. For the outer planet, TOI-1468 c ( P c = 15.53 d), we derive a mass of M c = 6.64 −0.68 +0.67 M ⊕ ,aradius of R c = 2.06 ± 0.04 R ⊕ , and a bulk density of ρ c = 2.00 −0.19 +0.21 g cm −3 , which corresponds to a rocky core composition with a H/He gas envelope. These planets are located on opposite sides of the radius valley, making our system an interesting discovery as there are only a handful of other systems with the same properties. This discovery can further help determine a more precise location of the radius valley for small planets around M dwarfs and, therefore, shed more light on planet formation and evolution scenarios. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We report on the discovery and validation of a two-planet system around a bright (V  = 8.85 mag) early G dwarf (1.43  R⊙, 1.15  M⊙, TOI 2319) using data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Three transit events from two planets were detected by citizen scientists in the month-long TESS light curve (sector 25), as part of the Planet Hunters TESS project. Modelling of the transits yields an orbital period of $11.6264 _{ - 0.0025 } ^ { + 0.0022 }$ d and radius of $3.41 _{ - 0.12 } ^ { + 0.14 }$ R⊕ for the inner planet, and a period in the range 19.26–35 d and a radius of $5.83 _{ - 0.14 } ^ { + 0.14 }$ R⊕ for the outer planet, which was only seen to transit once. Each signal was independently statistically validated, taking into consideration the TESS light curve as well as the ground-based spectroscopic follow-up observations. Radial velocities from HARPS-N and EXPRES yield a tentative detection of planet b, whose mass we estimate to be $11.56 _{ - 6.14 } ^ { + 6.58 }$ M⊕, and allow us to place an upper limit of 27.5 M⊕ (99 per cent confidence) on the mass of planet c. Due to the brightness of the host star and the strong likelihood of an extended H/He atmosphere on both planets, this system offers excellent prospects for atmospheric characterization and comparative planetology. 
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    We report the discovery and confirmation of the planetary system TOI-1288. This late G dwarf harbours two planets: TOI-1288 b and TOI-1288 c. We combine TESS space-borne and ground-based transit photometry with HARPS-N and HIRES high-precision Doppler measurements, which we use to constrain the masses of both planets in the system and the radius of planet b. TOI-1288 b has a period of $2.699835^{+0.000004}_{-0.000003}$ d, a radius of 5.24 ± 0.09 R⊕, and a mass of 42 ± 3 M⊕, making this planet a hot transiting super-Neptune situated right in the Neptunian desert. This desert refers to a paucity of Neptune-sized planets on short period orbits. Our 2.4-yr-long Doppler monitoring of TOI-1288 revealed the presence of a Saturn–mass planet on a moderately eccentric orbit ($0.13^{+0.07}_{-0.09}$) with a minimum mass of 84 ± 7 M⊕ and a period of $443^{+11}_{-13}$ d. The five sectors worth of TESS data do not cover our expected mid-transit time for TOI-1288 c, and we do not detect a transit for this planet in these sectors.

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    HIP 9618 (HD 12572, TOI-1471, TIC 306263608) is a bright (G = 9.0 mag) solar analogue. TESS photometry revealed the star to have two candidate planets with radii of 3.9 ± 0.044 R⊕ (HIP 9618 b) and 3.343 ± 0.039 R⊕ (HIP 9618 c). While the 20.77291 d period of HIP 9618 b was measured unambiguously, HIP 9618 c showed only two transits separated by a 680-d gap in the time series, leaving many possibilities for the period. To solve this issue, CHEOPS performed targeted photometry of period aliases to attempt to recover the true period of planet c, and successfully determined the true period to be 52.56349 d. High-resolution spectroscopy with HARPS-N, SOPHIE, and CAFE revealed a mass of 10.0 ± 3.1M⊕ for HIP 9618 b, which, according to our interior structure models, corresponds to a $6.8\pm 1.4~{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ gas fraction. HIP 9618 c appears to have a lower mass than HIP 9618 b, with a 3-sigma upper limit of <18M⊕. Follow-up and archival RV measurements also reveal a clear long-term trend which, when combined with imaging and astrometric information, reveal a low-mass companion ($0.08^{+0.12}_{-0.05} M_\odot$) orbiting at $26.0^{+19.0}_{-11.0}$ au. This detection makes HIP 9618 one of only five bright (K < 8 mag) transiting multiplanet systems known to host a planet with P > 50 d, opening the door for the atmospheric characterization of warm (Teq < 750 K) sub-Neptunes.

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    We report the discovery of two warm sub-Neptunes transiting the bright (G = 9.5 mag) K-dwarf HD 15906 (TOI 461, TIC 4646810). This star was observed by the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) in sectors 4 and 31, revealing two small transiting planets. The inner planet, HD 15906 b, was detected with an unambiguous period but the outer planet, HD 15906 c, showed only two transits separated by ∼ 734 d, leading to 36 possible values of its period. We performed follow-up observations with the CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) to confirm the true period of HD 15906 c and improve the radius precision of the two planets. From TESS, CHEOPS, and additional ground-based photometry, we find that HD 15906 b has a radius of 2.24 ± 0.08 R⊕ and a period of 10.924709 ± 0.000032 d, whilst HD 15906 c has a radius of 2.93$^{+0.07}_{-0.06}$ R⊕ and a period of 21.583298$^{+0.000052}_{-0.000055}$ d. Assuming zero bond albedo and full day-night heat redistribution, the inner and outer planet have equilibrium temperatures of 668 ± 13 K and 532 ± 10 K, respectively. The HD 15906 system has become one of only six multiplanet systems with two warm (≲ 700 K) sub-Neptune sized planets transiting a bright star (G ≤ 10 mag). It is an excellent target for detailed characterization studies to constrain the composition of sub-Neptune planets and test theories of planet formation and evolution.

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  9. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We report on the discovery and validation of TOI 813 b (TIC 55525572 b), a transiting exoplanet identified by citizen scientists in data from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) and the first planet discovered by the Planet Hunters TESS project. The host star is a bright (V = 10.3 mag) subgiant ($R_\star =1.94\, R_\odot$, $M_\star =1.32\, M_\odot$). It was observed almost continuously by TESS during its first year of operations, during which time four individual transit events were detected. The candidate passed all the standard light curve-based vetting checks, and ground-based follow-up spectroscopy and speckle imaging enabled us to place an upper limit of $2\, M_{\rm Jup}$ (99 per cent confidence) on the mass of the companion, and to statistically validate its planetary nature. Detailed modelling of the transits yields a period of $83.8911 _{ - 0.0031 } ^ { + 0.0027 }$ d, a planet radius of 6.71 ± 0.38 R⊕ and a semimajor axis of $0.423 _{ - 0.037 } ^ { + 0.031 }$ AU. The planet’s orbital period combined with the evolved nature of the host star places this object in a relatively underexplored region of parameter space. We estimate that TOI 813 b induces a reflex motion in its host star with a semi-amplitude of ∼6 m s−1, making this a promising system to measure the mass of a relatively long-period transiting planet. 
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  10. Lightning increases the atmosphere’s ability to cleanse itself by producing nitric oxide (NO), leading to atmospheric chemistry that forms ozone (O3) and the atmosphere’s primary oxidant, the hydroxyl radical (OH). Our analysis of a 2012 airborne study of deep convection and chemistry demonstrates that lightning also directly generates the oxidants OH and the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2). Extreme amounts of OH and HO2were discovered and linked to visible flashes occurring in front of the aircraft and to subvisible discharges in electrified anvil regions. This enhanced OH and HO2is orders of magnitude greater than any previous atmospheric observation. Lightning-generated OH in all storms happening at the same time globally can be responsible for a highly uncertain, but substantial, 2 to 16% of global atmospheric OH oxidation.

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