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Creators/Authors contains: "Jensen, Jorgen B."

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  1. Abstract

    Southern Ocean (SO) low‐level mixed phase clouds have been a long‐standing challenge for Earth system models to accurately represent. While improvements to the Community Earth System Model version 2 (CESM2) resulted in increased supercooled liquid in SO clouds and improved model radiative biases, simulated SO clouds in CESM2 now contain too little ice. Previous observational studies have indicated that marine particles are major contributor to SO low‐level cloud heterogeneous ice nucleation, a process that initiates a number of cloud processes that govern cloud radiative properties. In this study, we utilize detailed aerosol and ice nucleating particle (INP) measurements from two recent measurement campaigns to assess simulated aerosol abundance, number size distributions, and composition and INP parameterizations for use in CESM2. Our results indicate that CESM2 has a positive bias in simulated surface‐level total aerosol surface area at latitudes north of 58°S. Measured INP populations were dominated by marine INPs and we present evidence of refractory INPs present over the SO assumed here to be mineral dust INPs. Results highlight a critical need to assess simulated mineral dust number and size distributions in CESM2 in order to adequately represent SO INP populations and their response to long‐term changes in atmospheric transport patterns and land use change. We also discuss important cautions and limitations in applying a commonly used mineral dust INP parameterization to remote regions like the pristine SO.

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  2. Abstract

    Supercooled liquid water (SLW) and mixed phase clouds containing SLW and ice over the Southern Ocean (SO) are poorly represented in global climate and numerical weather prediction models. Observed SLW exists at lower temperatures than threshold values used to characterize its detrainment from convection in model parameterizations, and processes controlling its formation and removal are poorly understood. High‐resolution observations are needed to better characterize SLW over the SO. This study characterizes the frequency and spatial distribution of different cloud phases (liquid, ice, and mixed) using in situ observations acquired during the Southern Ocean Clouds, Radiation, Aerosol Transport Experiment Study. Cloud particle phase is identified using multiple cloud probes. Results show occurrence frequencies of liquid phase samples up to 70% between −20°C and 0°C and of ice phase samples up to 10% between −5°C and 0°C. Cloud phase spatial heterogeneity is determined by relating the total number of 1 s samples from a given cloud to the number of segments whose neighboring samples are the same phase. Mixed phase conditions are the most spatially heterogeneous from −20°C to 0°C, whereas liquid phase conditions from −10°C to 0°C and ice phase conditions from −20°C to −10°C are the least spatially heterogeneous. Greater spatial heterogeneity is associated with broader distributions of vertical velocity. Decreasing droplet concentrations and increasing number‐weighted mean liquid diameters occur within mixed phase clouds as the liquid water fraction decreases, possibly suggesting preferential evaporation of smaller drops during the Wegener‐Bergeron‐Findeisen process.

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  3. Cloud phase and relative humidity (RH) distributions at −67° to 0°C over the Southern Ocean during austral summer are compared between in situ airborne observations and global climate simulations. A scale-aware comparison is conducted using horizontally averaged observations from 0.1 to 50 km. Cloud phase frequencies, RH distributions, and liquid mass fraction are found to be less affected by horizontal resolutions than liquid and ice water content (LWC and IWC, respectively), liquid and ice number concentrations (Ncliqand Ncice, respectively), and ice supersaturation (ISS) frequency. At −10° to 0°C, observations show 27%–34% and 17%–37% of liquid and mixed phases, while simulations show 60%–70% and 3%–4%, respectively. Simulations overestimate (underestimate) LWC and Ncliqin liquid (mixed) phase, overestimate Ncicein mixed phase, underestimate IWC in ice and mixed phases, and underestimate (overestimate) liquid mass fraction below (above) −5°C, indicating that observational constraints are needed for different cloud phases. RH frequently occurs at liquid saturation in liquid and mixed phases for all datasets, yet the observed RH in ice phase can deviate from liquid saturation by up to 20%–40% at −20° to 0°C, indicating that the model assumption of liquid saturation for coexisting ice and liquid is inaccurate for low liquid mass fractions (<0.1). Simulations lack RH variability for partial cloud fractions (0.1–0.9) and underestimate (overestimate) ISS frequency for cloud fraction <0.1 (≥0.6), implying that improving RH subgrid-scale parameterizations may be a viable path to account for small-scale processes that affect RH and cloud phase heterogeneities. Two sets of simulations (nudged and free-running) show very similar results (except for ISS frequency) regardless of sample sizes, corroborating the statistical robustness of the model–observation comparisons.

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  4. Abstract

    The bulk microphysical properties and number distribution functions (N(D)) of supercooled liquid water (SLW) and ice inside and between ubiquitous generating cells (GCs) observed over the Southern Ocean (SO) during the Southern Ocean Clouds Radiation Aerosol Transport Experimental Study (SOCRATES) measured by in situ cloud probes onboard the NCAR/NSF G‐V aircraft are compared. SLW was detected inside all GCs with an average liquid water content of 0.31 ± 0.19 g m−3, 11% larger than values between GCs. TheN(D)of droplets (maximum dimensionD < 50 μm) inside and between GCs had only slight differences. For ice particles, on the other hand, the mean concentration (median mass diameter) withD > 200 μm inside GCs was 2.0 ± 3.3 L−1(323 ± 263 μm), 65% (37%) larger than values outside GCs. AsDincreases, the percentage differences became larger (up to ~500%). The more and larger ice particles inside GCs suggest the GC updrafts provide a favorable environment for particle growth by deposition and riming and that mixing processes are less efficient at redistributing larger particles. The horizontal scale of observed GCs ranged from 200 to 600 m with a mean of 395 ± 162 m, smaller than GC widths observed in previous studies. This study expands knowledge of the microphysical properties and processes acting in GCs over a wider range of conditions than previously available.

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