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Creators/Authors contains: "Jensen, Laramie T."

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  1. Abstract

    Recent studies, including many from the GEOTRACES program, have expanded our knowledge of trace metals in the Arctic Ocean, an isolated ocean dominated by continental shelf and riverine inputs. Here, we report a unique, pan‐Arctic linear relationship between dissolved copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) present north of 60°N that is absent in other oceans. The correlation is driven primarily by high Cu and Ni concentrations in the low salinity, river‐influenced surface Arctic and low, homogeneous concentrations in Arctic deep waters, opposing their typical global distributions. Rivers are a major source of both metals, which is most evident within the central Arctic's Transpolar Drift. Local decoupling of the linear Cu‐Ni relationship along the Chukchi Shelf and within the Canada Basin upper halocline reveals that Ni is additionally modified by biological cycling and shelf sediment processes, while Cu is mostly sourced from riverine inputs and influenced by mixing. This observation highlights differences in their chemistries: Cu is more prone to complexation with organic ligands, stabilizing its riverine source fluxes into the Arctic, while Ni is more labile and is dominated by biological processes. Within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, an important source of Arctic water to the Atlantic Ocean, contributions of Cu and Ni from meteoric waters and the halocline are attenuated during transit to the Atlantic. Additionally, Cu and Ni in deep waters diminish with age due to isolation from surface sources, with higher concentrations in the younger Eastern Arctic basins and lower concentrations in the older Western Arctic basins.

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  2. Abstract

    The surface waters of the Arctic Ocean include an important inventory of freshwater from rivers, sea ice melt, and glacial meltwaters. While some freshwaters are mixed directly into the surface ocean, cryospheric reservoirs, such as snow, sea ice, and melt ponds act as incubators for trace metals, as well as potential sources to the surface ocean upon melting. The availability and reactivity of these metals depends on their speciation, which may vary across each pool or undergo transformation upon mixing. We present here baseline measurements of colloidal (∼0.003–0.200 μm) iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), and manganese (Mn) in snow, sea ice, melt ponds, and the underlying seawater. We consider both the total concentration of colloidal metals ([cMe]) in each cryospheric reservoir and the contribution of cMe to the overall dissolved metal phase (%cMe). Notably, snow contained higher (cMe) as well as higher %cMe relative to seawater for metals such as Fe and Zn across most stations. Stations close to the North Pole had relatively high aerosol deposition, imparting high (cFe) and (cZn), as well as high %cFe, %cZn, %cMn, and %cCd (>80%). In contrast, surface seawater concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn, and Ni were dominated by the soluble phase (<0.003 μm), suggesting little impact of cMe from the melting cryosphere, or rapid aggregation/disaggregation dynamics within surface waters leading to the loss of cMe. This has important implications for how trace metal biogeochemistry speciation and thus fluxes may change in a future ice‐free Arctic Ocean.

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  3. Abstract

    Ocean time‐series sites are influenced by both temporal variability, as in situ conditions change, as well as spatial variability, as water masses move across the fixed observation point. To remove the effect of spatial variability, this study made sub‐daily Lagrangian observations of trace elements and isotopes (Al, Sc, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb,232Th, and230Th) in surface water over a 12‐day period (July–August 2015) in the North Pacific near the Hawaii Ocean Time‐series Station ALOHA. Additionally, a vertical profile in the upper 250 m was analyzed. This dataset is intercalibrated with GEOTRACES standards and provides a consistent baseline for trace element studies in the oligotrophic North Pacific. No diel changes in trace elements could be resolved, although day‐to‐day variations were resolved for some elements (Fe, Cu, and Zn), which may be related to organic matter cycling or ligand availability. Pb concentrations remained relatively constant during 1997–2015, presenting a change from previous decreases. Nutrient to trace element stoichiometric ratios were compared to those observed in phytoplankton as an indication of the extent of biological trace element utilization in this ecosystem, providing a basis for future ecological trace element studies.

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  4. Abstract

    A major surface circulation feature of the Arctic Ocean is the Transpolar Drift (TPD), a current that transports river‐influenced shelf water from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas toward the center of the basin and Fram Strait. In 2015, the international GEOTRACES program included a high‐resolution pan‐Arctic survey of carbon, nutrients, and a suite of trace elements and isotopes (TEIs). The cruises bisected the TPD at two locations in the central basin, which were defined by maxima in meteoric water and dissolved organic carbon concentrations that spanned 600 km horizontally and ~25–50 m vertically. Dissolved TEIs such as Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Hg, Nd, and Th, which are generally particle‐reactive but can be complexed by organic matter, were observed at concentrations much higher than expected for the open ocean setting. Other trace element concentrations such as Al, V, Ga, and Pb were lower than expected due to scavenging over the productive East Siberian and Laptev shelf seas. Using a combination of radionuclide tracers and ice drift modeling, the transport rate for the core of the TPD was estimated at 0.9 ± 0.4 Sv (106 m3 s−1). This rate was used to derive the mass flux for TEIs that were enriched in the TPD, revealing the importance of lateral transport in supplying materials beneath the ice to the central Arctic Ocean and potentially to the North Atlantic Ocean via Fram Strait. Continued intensification of the Arctic hydrologic cycle and permafrost degradation will likely lead to an increase in the flux of TEIs into the Arctic Ocean.

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