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  1. Context. The inclusion of molecular physics is an important piece that tends to be missing from the puzzle when modeling the spectra of supernovae (SNe). Molecules have both a direct impact on the spectra, particularly in the infrared, and an indirect one as a result of their influence on certain physical conditions, such as temperature. Aims. In this paper, we aim to investigate molecular formation and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) cooling, with a particular focus on CO, the most commonly detected molecule in supernovae. We also aim to determine the dependency of supernova chemistry on physical parameters and the relative sensitivity to rate uncertainties. Methods. We implemented a chemical kinetic description of the destruction and formation of molecules into the SN spectral synthesis code SUMO . In addition, selected molecules were coupled into the full NLTE level population framework and, thus, we incorporated molecular NLTE cooling into the temperature equation. We produced a test model of the CO formation in SN 1987A between 150 and 600 days and investigated the sensitivity of the resulting molecular masses to the input parameters. Results. We find that there is a close inter-dependency between the thermal evolution and the amount of CO formed, mainlymore »through an important temperature-sensitive CO destruction process with O + . After a few hundred days, CO completely dominates the cooling of the oxygen-carbon zone of the supernova which, therefore, contributes little optical emission. The uncertainty of the calculated CO mass scales approximately linearly with the typical uncertainty factor for individual rates. We demonstrate how molecular masses can potentially be used to constrain various physical parameters of the supernova.« less
  2. ABSTRACT We present and discuss the optical spectrophotometric observations of the nearby (z = 0.087) Type I superluminous supernova (SLSN I) SN 2017gci, whose peak K-corrected absolute magnitude reaches Mg = −21.5 mag. Its photometric and spectroscopic evolution includes features of both slow- and of fast-evolving SLSN I, thus favoring a continuum distribution between the two SLSN-I subclasses. In particular, similarly to other SLSNe I, the multiband light curves (LCs) of SN 2017gci show two re-brightenings at about 103 and 142 d after the maximum light. Interestingly, this broadly agrees with a broad emission feature emerging around 6520 Å after ∼51 d from the maximum light, which is followed by a sharp knee in the LC. If we interpret this feature as Hα, this could support the fact that the bumps are the signature of late interactions of the ejecta with a (hydrogen-rich) circumstellar material. Then we fitted magnetar- and CSM-interaction-powered synthetic LCs on to the bolometric one of SN 2017gci. In the magnetar case, the fit suggests a polar magnetic field Bp ≃ 6 × 1014 G, an initial period of the magnetar Pinitial ≃ 2.8 ms, an ejecta mass $M_{\rm ejecta}\simeq 9\, \mathrm{M}_\odot $ and an ejecta opacity $\kappa \simeq 0.08\, \mathrm{cm}^{2}\, \rm{g}^{-1}$. A CSM-interactionmore »scenario would imply a CSM mass $\simeq 5\, \mathrm{M}_\odot $ and an ejecta mass $\simeq 12\, \mathrm{M}_\odot $. Finally, the nebular spectrum of phase  + 187 d was modeled, deriving a mass of $\sim 10\, {\rm M}_\odot$ for the ejecta. Our models suggest that either a magnetar or CSM interaction might be the power sources for SN 2017gci and that its progenitor was a massive ($40\, {\rm M}_\odot$) star.« less
  3. ABSTRACT We present the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the Type II supernova (SN II) SN 2017ivv (also known as ASASSN-17qp). Located in an extremely faint galaxy (Mr = −10.3 mag), SN 2017ivv shows an unprecedented evolution during the 2 yr of observations. At early times, the light curve shows a fast rise (∼6−8 d) to a peak of ${\it M}^{\rm max}_{g}= -17.84$ mag, followed by a very rapid decline of 7.94 ± 0.48 mag per 100 d in the V band. The extensive photometric coverage at late phases shows that the radioactive tail has two slopes, one steeper than that expected from the decay of 56Co (between 100 and 350 d), and another slower (after 450 d), probably produced by an additional energy source. From the bolometric light curve, we estimated that the amount of ejected 56Ni is ∼0.059 ± 0.003 M⊙. The nebular spectra of SN 2017ivv show a remarkable transformation that allows the evolution to be split into three phases: (1) Hα strong phase (<200 d); (2) Hα weak phase (between 200 and 350 d); and (3) Hα broad phase (>500 d). We find that the nebular analysis favours a binary progenitor and an asymmetric explosion. Finally, comparing the nebular spectra of SN 2017ivv to models suggests a progenitor with a zero-age main-sequence mass of 15–17 M⊙.
  4. ABSTRACT At 66 Mpc, AT2019qiz is the closest optical tidal disruption event (TDE) to date, with a luminosity intermediate between the bulk of the population and the faint-and-fast event iPTF16fnl. Its proximity allowed a very early detection and triggering of multiwavelength and spectroscopic follow-up well before maximum light. The velocity dispersion of the host galaxy and fits to the TDE light curve indicate a black hole mass ≈106 M⊙, disrupting a star of ≈1 M⊙. By analysing our comprehensive UV, optical, and X-ray data, we show that the early optical emission is dominated by an outflow, with a luminosity evolution L ∝ t2, consistent with a photosphere expanding at constant velocity (≳2000 km s−1), and a line-forming region producing initially blueshifted H and He ii profiles with v = 3000–10 000 km s−1. The fastest optical ejecta approach the velocity inferred from radio detections (modelled in a forthcoming companion paper from K. D. Alexander et al.), thus the same outflow may be responsible for both the fast optical rise and the radio emission – the first time this connection has been observed in a TDE. The light-curve rise begins 29 ± 2 d before maximum light, peaking when the photosphere reaches the radius where optical photons can escape. The photosphere then undergoes a sudden transition, first cooling atmore »constant radius then contracting at constant temperature. At the same time, the blueshifts disappear from the spectrum and Bowen fluorescence lines (N iii) become prominent, implying a source of far-UV photons, while the X-ray light curve peaks at ≈1041 erg s−1. Assuming that these X-rays are from prompt accretion, the size and mass of the outflow are consistent with the reprocessing layer needed to explain the large optical to X-ray ratio in this and other optical TDEs, possibly favouring accretion-powered over collision-powered outflow models.« less
  5. ABSTRACT

    SN 2018hti was a very nearby (z = 0.0614) superluminous supernova with an exceedingly bright absolute magnitude of −21.7 mag in r band at maximum. The densely sampled pre-maximum light curves of SN 2018hti show a slow luminosity evolution and constrain the rise time to ∼50 rest-frame d. We fitted synthetic light curves to the photometry to infer the physical parameters of the explosion of SN 2018hti for both the magnetar and the CSM-interaction scenarios. We conclude that one of two mechanisms could be powering the luminosity of SN 2018hti; interaction with ∼10 M⊙ of circumstellar material or a magnetar with a magnetic field of Bp∼ 1.3 × 1013 G, and initial period of Pspin∼ 1.8 ms. From the nebular spectrum modelling we infer that SN 2018hti likely results from the explosion of a ${\sim}40\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ progenitor star.