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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
  2. This tutorial targets researchers and practitioners who are interested in AI and ML technologies for structural information extraction (IE) from unstructured textual sources. Particularly, this tutorial will provide audience with a systematic introduction to recent advances of IE, by answering several important research questions. These questions include (i) how to develop an robust IE system from noisy, insufficient training data, while ensuring the reliability of its prediction? (ii) how to foster the generalizability of IE through enhancing the system’s cross-lingual, cross-domain, cross-task and cross-modal transferability? (iii) how to precisely support extracting structural information with extremely fine-grained, diverse and boundless labels? (iv) how to further improve IE by leveraging indirect supervision from other NLP tasks, such as NLI, QA or summarization, and pre-trained language models? (v) how to acquire knowledge to guide the inference of IE systems? We will discuss several lines of frontier research that tackle those challenges, and will conclude the tutorial by outlining directions for further investigation.
  3. The goal of text-to-text generation is to make machines express like a human in many applications such as conversation, summarization, and translation. It is one of the most important yet challenging tasks in natural language processing (NLP). Various neural encoder-decoder models have been proposed to achieve the goal by learning to map input text to output text. However, the input text alone often provides limited knowledge to generate the desired output, so the performance of text generation is still far from satisfaction in many real-world scenarios. To address this issue, researchers have considered incorporating (i) internal knowledge embedded in the input text and (ii) external knowledge from outside sources such as knowledge base and knowledge graph into the text generation system. This research topic is known as knowledge-enhanced text generation. In this survey, we present a comprehensive review of the research on this topic over the past five years. The main content includes two parts: (i) general methods and architectures for integrating knowledge into text generation; (ii) specific techniques and applications according to different forms of knowledge data. This survey can have broad audiences, researchers and practitioners, in academia and industry.
  4. Event extraction has long been treated as a sentence-level task in the IE community. We argue that this setting does not match human information seeking behavior and leads to incomplete and uninformative extraction results. We propose a document-level neural event argument extraction model by formulating the task as conditional generation following event templates. We also compile a new document-level event extraction benchmark dataset WIKIEVENTS which includes complete event and coreference annotation. On the task of argument extraction, we achieve an absolute gain of 7.6% F1 and 5.7% F1 over the next best model on the RAMS and WIKIEVENTS datasets respectively. On the more challenging task of informative argument extraction, which requires implicit coreference reasoning, we achieve a 9.3% F1 gain over the best baseline. To demonstrate the portability of our model, we also create the first end-to-end zero-shot event extraction framework and achieve 97% of fully supervised model’s trigger extraction performance and 82% of the argument extraction performance given only access to 10 out of the 33 types on ACE.
  5. Logical queries constitute an important subset of questions posed in knowledge graph question answering systems. Yet, effectively answering logical queries on large knowledge graphs remains a highly challenging problem. Traditional subgraph matching based methods might suffer from the noise and incompleteness of the underlying knowledge graph, often with a prolonged online response time. Recently, an alternative type of method has emerged whose key idea is to embed knowledge graph entities and the query in an embedding space so that the embedding of answer entities is close to that of the query. Compared with subgraph matching based methods, it can better handle the noisy or missing information in knowledge graph, with a faster online response. Promising as it might be, several fundamental limitations still exist, including the linear transformation assumption for modeling relations and the inability to answer complex queries with multiple variable nodes. In this paper, we propose an embedding based method (NewLook) to address these limitations. Our proposed method offers three major advantages. First (Applicability), it supports four types of logical operations and can answer queries with multiple variable nodes. Second (Effectiveness), the proposed NewLook goes beyond the linear transformation assumption, and thus consistently outperforms the existing methods. Thirdmore »(Efficiency), compared with subgraph matching based methods, NewLook is at least 3 times faster in answering the queries; compared with the existing embed-ding based methods, NewLook bears a comparable or even faster online response and offline training time.« less