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  1. Surface cleaning using commercial disinfectants, which has recently increased during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, can generate secondary indoor pollutants both in gas and aerosol phases. It can also affect indoor air quality and health, especially for workers repeatedly exposed to disinfectants. Here, we cleaned the floor of a mechanically ventilated office room using a commercial cleaner while concurrently measuring gas-phase precursors, oxidants, radicals, secondary oxidation products, and aerosols in real time; these were detected within minutes after cleaner application. During cleaning, indoor monoterpene concentrations exceeded outdoor concentrations by two orders of magnitude, increasing the rate of ozonolysis under lowmore »(<10 ppb) ozone levels. High number concentrations of freshly nucleated sub–10-nm particles (≥105 cm−3) resulted in respiratory tract deposited dose rates comparable to or exceeding that of inhalation of vehicle-associated aerosols.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  2. Pure spin currents can be generated via thermal excitations of magnons. These magnon spin currents serve as carriers of information in insulating materials, and controlling them using electrical means may enable energy efficient information processing. Here, we demonstrate electric field control of magnon spin currents in the antiferromagnetic insulator Cr 2 O 3 . We show that the thermally driven magnon spin currents reveal a spin-flop transition in thin-film Cr 2 O 3 . Crucially, this spin-flop can be turned on or off by applying an electric field across the thickness of the film. Using this tunability, we demonstrate electricmore »field–induced switching of the polarization of magnon spin currents by varying only a gate voltage while at a fixed magnetic field. We propose a model considering an electric field–dependent spin-flop transition, arising from a change in sublattice magnetizations via a magnetoelectric coupling. These results provide a different approach toward controlling magnon spin current in antiferromagnets.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  3. A small area typically refers to a subpopulation or domain of interest for which a reliable direct estimate, based only on the domain-specific sample, cannot be produced due to small sample size in the domain. While traditional small area methods and models are widely used nowadays, there have also been much work and interest in robust statistical inference for small area estimation (SAE). We survey this work and provide a comprehensive review here.We begin with a brief review of the traditional SAE methods. We then discuss SAEmethods that are developed under weaker assumptions and SAE methods that are robust inmore »certain ways, such as in terms of outliers or model failure. Our discussion also includes topics such as nonparametric SAE methods, Bayesian approaches, model selection and diagnostics, and missing data. A brief review of software packages available for implementing robust SAE methods is also given.« less
  4. Abstract Amongst the rare-earth perovskite nickelates, LaNiO 3 (LNO) is an exception. While the former have insulating and antiferromagnetic ground states, LNO remains metallic and non-magnetic down to the lowest temperatures. It is believed that LNO is a strange metal, on the verge of an antiferromagnetic instability. Our work suggests that LNO is a quantum critical metal, close to an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP). The QCP behavior in LNO is manifested in epitaxial thin films with unprecedented high purities. We find that the temperature and magnetic field dependences of the resistivity of LNO at low temperatures are consistent withmore »scatterings of charge carriers from weak disorder and quantum fluctuations of an antiferromagnetic nature. Furthermore, we find that the introduction of a small concentration of magnetic impurities qualitatively changes the magnetotransport properties of LNO, resembling that found in some heavy-fermion Kondo lattice systems in the vicinity of an antiferromagnetic QCP.« less