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  1. Stop-and-go traffic poses significant challenges to the efficiency and safety of traffic operations, and its impacts and working mechanism have attracted much attention. Recent studies have shown that Connected and Automated Vehicles (CAVs) with carefully designed longitudinal control have the potential to dampen the stop-and-go wave based on simulated vehicle trajectories. In this study, Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) is adopted to control the longitudinal behavior of CAVs and real-world vehicle trajectory data is utilized to train the DRL controller. It considers a Human-Driven (HD) vehicle tailed by a CAV, which are then followed by a platoon of HD vehicles. Suchmore »an experimental design is to test how the CAV can help to dampen the stop-and-go wave generated by the lead HD vehicle and contribute to smoothing the following HD vehicles’ speed profiles. The DRL control is trained using realworld vehicle trajectories, and eventually evaluated using SUMO simulation. The results show that the DRL control decreases the speed oscillation of the CAV by 54% and 8%-28% for those following HD vehicles. Significant fuel consumption savings are also observed. Additionally, the results suggest that CAVs may act as a traffic stabilizer if they choose to behave slightly altruistically.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 16, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2022
  3. This study focuses on how to improve the merge control prior to lane reduction points due to either accidents or constructions. A Cooperative Car-following and Merging (CCM) control strategy is proposed considering the coexistence of Automated Vehicles (AVs) and Human-4 Driven Vehicles (HDVs). CCM introduces a modified/generalized Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) for vehicle longitudinal control prior to lane reduction points. It also takes courtesy into account to ensure that AVs behave responsibly and ethically. CCM is evaluated using microscopic traffic simulation and compared with no control and CACC merge strategies. The results show that CCM consistently generates the lowestmore »delays and highest throughputs approaching the theoretical capacity. Its safety benefits are also found to be significant based on vehicle trajectories and density maps. AVs in this study do not need to be fully automated and can be at Level-1 automation. CCM only requires automated longitudinal control such as Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) and information sharing among vehicles, and ACC is already commercially available on many new vehicles. Also, it does not need 100% ACC penetration, presenting itself as a promising and practical solution for improving traffic operations in lane reduction transition areas such as highway work zones.« less
  4. A previously developed thermal simulation technique based on model order reduction is applied to the simulation of a CPU. The approach is derived from proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) that projects the physical domain onto the POD space. It has been demonstrated that the developed approach offers an accurate thermal simulation of the CPU with a reduction in numerical degrees of freedom by several orders of magnitude compared to the direct numerical simulation (DNS). In addition, the technique has the capability of providing spatial resolution as fine as the direct numerical simulation for the CPU.
  5. Weak measurement (WM) with state pre- and post-selection can amplify otherwise undetectable small signals and thus has potential in precision measurement applications. Although frequency measurements offer the hitherto highest precision due to the stable narrow atomic transitions, it remains a long-standing interest to develop new schemes to further escalate their performance. Here, we demonstrate a WM-enhanced correlation spectroscopy technique capable of narrowing the resonance linewidth down to 0.1 Hz in a room-temperature atomic vapour cell. The potential of this technique for precision measurement is demonstrated through weak magnetic-field sensing. By judiciously pre- and post-selecting frequency-modulated input and output optical states inmore »a nearly orthogonal manner, a sensitivity of 7 fT Hz^(−1/2) at a low frequency near DC is achieved using only one laser beam with 15 µW of power. Additionally, our results extend the WM framework to a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian and shed new light on metrology and bio-magnetic field sensing.« less
  6. Realization of chip‐scale nonreciprocal optics such as isolators and circulators is highly demanding for all‐optical signal routing and protection with standard photonics foundry process. Owing to the significant challenge for incorporating magneto‐optical materials on chip, the exploration of magnetic‐free alternatives has become exceedingly imperative in integrated photonics. Here, a chip‐based, tunable all‐optical isolator at the telecommunication band is demonstrated, which is based upon bulk stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a high‐Q silica microtoroid resonator. This device exhibits remarkable characteristics over most state‐of‐the‐art implements, including high isolation ratio, no insertion loss, and large working power range. Thanks to the guided acousticmore »wave and accompanying momentum‐conservation condition, bulk SBS also assist in realizing the nonreciprocal parity‐time symmetry in two directly coupled microresonators. The breach of time‐reversal symmetry further makes the design a versatile arena for developing many formidable ultra‐compact devices such as unidirectional single‐mode Brillouin lasers and supersensitive photonic sensors.« less
  7. In this paper, we consider the amplify-and-forward relay networks in mmWave systems and propose a hybrid precoder/combiner design approach. The phase-only RF precoding/ combining matrices are first designed to support multi-stream transmission, where we compensate the phase for the eigenmodes of the channel. Then, the baseband precoders/combiners are performed to achieve the maximum mutual information. Based on the data processing inequality for the mutual information, we first jointly design the baseband source and relay nodes to maximize the mutual information before the destination baseband receiver. The proposed low-complexity iterative algorithm for the source and relay nodes is based on themore »equivalence between mutual information maximization and the weighted MMSE. After we obtain the optimal precoder and combiner for the source and relay nodes, we implement the MMSE-SIC filter at the baseband receiver to keep the mutual information unchanged, thus obtaining the optimal mutual information for the whole relay system. Simulation results show that our algorithm achieves better performance with lower complexity compared with other algorithms in the literature.« less