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  1. Abstract Individual animals in natural populations tend to host diverse parasite species concurrently over their lifetimes. In free‐living ecological communities, organismal life histories shape interactions with their environment, which ultimately forms the basis of ecological succession. However, the structure and dynamics of mammalian parasite communities have not been contextualized in terms of primary ecological succession, in part because few datasets track occupancy and abundance of multiple parasites in wild hosts starting at birth. Here, we studied community dynamics of 12 subtypes of protozoan microparasites ( Theileria spp.) in a herd of African buffalo. We show that Theileria communities followed predictable patterns of succession underpinned by four different parasite life history strategies. However, in contrast to many free‐living communities, network complexity decreased with host age. Examining parasite communities through the lens of succession may better inform the effect of complex within host eco‐evolutionary dynamics on infection outcomes, including parasite co‐existence through the lifetime of the host. 
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  2. Data analysis is an exploratory, interactive, and often collaborative process. Computational notebooks have become a popular tool to support this process, among others because of their ability to interleave code, narrative text, and results. However, notebooks in practice are often criticized as hard to maintain and being of low code quality, including problems such as unused or duplicated code and out-of-order code execution. Data scientists can benefit from better tool support when maintaining and evolving notebooks. We argue that central to such tool support is identifying the structure of notebooks. We present a lightweight and accurate approach to extract notebook structure and outline several ways such structure can be used to improve maintenance tooling for notebooks, including navigation and finding alternatives. 
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  3. Abstract

    In preparation for a major GWAS (Genome Wide Association Study) of plant regeneration and transformation, a large number of factors were examined for their effects on indirect regeneration rate in diverse wild genotypes—seeking a high rate of regeneration, but also highly genetically variable and heritable treatments. Many of the factors examined have never before been reported on for their effects on callus, shoot, or root organogenesis in poplar (Populus). Stems had the highest regeneration potential, followed by petioles and leaves, with greenhouse grown explant sources superior toin vitrogrowth explant sources. Changes of ± 50% to Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium salts and micronutrients had a minor effect on regeneration. Many popular treatments that were evaluated also had little to no useful effect at the levels studied, including activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, silver nitrate, melatonin, serotonin, sucrose concentration, and lipoic acid. As a result of this wide exploration, treatment combinations that substantially elevated regeneration in diverse genotypes were identified, enabling GWAS.

     
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  4. Narrow-band photochemistry and acid cleanly transform six-membered rings into five-membered rings by carbon excision. 
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  5. null (Ed.)