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  1. Abstract When a novel disease strikes a naïve host population, there is evidence that the most immediate response can involve host evolution while the pathogen remains relatively unchanged. When hosts also live in metapopulations, there may be critical differences in the dynamics that emerge from the synergy among evolutionary, ecological, and epidemiological factors. Here we used a Susceptible-Infected-Recovery model to explore how spatial and temporal ecological factors may drive the epidemiological and rapid-evolutionary dynamics of host metapopulations. For simplicity, we assumed two host genotypes: wild type, which has a positive intrinsic growth rate in the absence of disease, and robust type, which is less likely to catch the infection given exposure but has a lower intrinsic growth rate in the absence of infection. We found that the robust-type host would be strongly selected for in the presence of disease when transmission differences between the two types is large. The growth rate of the wild type had dual but opposite effects on host composition: a smaller increase in wild-type growth increased wild-type competition and lead to periodical disease outbreaks over the first generations after pathogen introduction, while larger growth increased disease by providing more susceptibles, which increased robust host density but decreased periodical outbreaks. Increased migration had a similar impact as the increased differential susceptibility, both of which led to an increase in robust hosts and a decrease in periodical outbreaks. Our study provided a comprehensive understanding of the combined effects among migration, disease epidemiology, and host demography on host evolution with an unchanging pathogen. The findings have important implications for wildlife conservation and zoonotic disease control. 
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  2. Abstract

    We report the first simultaneous lidar observations of thermosphere‐ionosphere sporadic nickel and Na (TISNi and TISNa) layers in altitudes ∼105–120 km over Yanqing (40.42°N, 116.02°E), Beijing. From two years of data spanning April 2019 to April 2020 and July 2020 to June 2021, TISNi layers in May and June possess high densities with a maximum of 818 cm−3on 17 May 2021, exceeding the density of main layer peak (∼85 km) by ∼4 times. They correlate with strong sporadic E layers observed nearby. TISNa layers occur at similar altitudes as TISNi with spatial‐temporal correlation coefficients of ∼1. The enrichment of Ni in TISNi is evident as the [TISNi]/[TISNa] column abundance ratios are ∼1, about 10 times the main layer [Ni]/[Na] ratios. These results are largely explained by neutralization of converged Ni+and Na+ions via recombination with electrons. Calculations show direct recombination dominating over dissociative recombination above ∼105 km.

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