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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 21, 2024
  2. Abstract Magnetic and electronic properties of quantum materials heavily rely on the crystal structure even in the same chemical compositions. In this study, it is demonstrated that a layered tetragonal EuCd 2 Sb 2 structure can be obtained by treating bulk trigonal EuCd 2 Sb 2 under high pressure (6 GPa) and high temperature (600 °C). Magnetization measurements of the newly formed layered tetragonal EuCd 2 Sb 2 confirm an antiferromagnetic ordering with Neel temperature ( T N ) around 16 K, which is significantly higher than that ( T N ≈ 7 K) of trigonal EuCd 2 Sb 2 , consistent with heat capacity measurements. Moreover, bad metal behavior is observed in the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity and the resistivity shows a dramatic increase around the Neel temperature. Electronic structure calculations with local density approximation dynamic mean–field theory (LDA+DMFT) show that this material is strongly correlated with well‐formed large magnetic moments, due to Hund's coupling, which is known to dramatically suppress the Kondo scale. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 7, 2024
  4. Abstract. Accurate representation of aerosol optical properties is essential for the modeling and remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols. Although aerosol optical properties are strongly dependent upon the aerosol size distribution, the use of detailed aerosol microphysics schemes in global atmospheric models is inhibited by associated computational demands. Computationally efficient parameterizations for aerosol size are needed. Inthis study, airborne measurements over the United States (DISCOVER-AQ) andSouth Korea (KORUS-AQ) are interpreted with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to investigate the variation in aerosol size when organicmatter (OM) and sulfate–nitrate–ammonium (SNA) are the dominant aerosol components. The airborne measurements exhibit a strong correlation (r=0.83) between dry aerosol size and the sum of OM and SNA mass concentration (MSNAOM). A global microphysical simulation(GEOS-Chem-TOMAS) indicates that MSNAOM and theratio between the two components (OM/SNA) are the major indicators for SNA and OM dry aerosol size. A parameterization of the dry effective radius (Reff) for SNA and OM aerosol is designed to represent the airborne measurements (R2=0.74; slope = 1.00) and the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS simulation (R2=0.72; slope = 0.81). When applied in the GEOS-Chem high-performance model, this parameterization improves the agreement between the simulated aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the ground-measured AOD from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET; R2 from 0.68 to 0.73 and slope from 0.75 to 0.96). Thus, this parameterization offers a computationally efficient method to represent aerosol size dynamically.

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  5. Abstract. Extensive airborne measurements of non-methane organic gases (NMOGs), methane, nitrogen oxides, reduced nitrogen species, and aerosol emissions from US wild and prescribed fires were conducted during the 2019 NOAA/NASA Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality campaign (FIREX-AQ). Here, we report the atmospheric enhancement ratios (ERs) and inferred emission factors (EFs) for compounds measured on board the NASA DC-8 research aircraft for nine wildfires and one prescribed fire, which encompass a range of vegetation types. We use photochemical proxies to identify young smoke and reduce the effects of chemical degradation on our emissions calculations. ERs and EFs calculated from FIREX-AQ observations agree within a factor of 2, with values reported from previous laboratory and field studies for more than 80 % of the carbon- and nitrogen-containing species. Wildfire emissions are parameterized based on correlations of the sum of NMOGs with reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy) to modified combustion efficiency (MCE) as well as other chemical signatures indicative of flaming/smoldering combustion, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon aerosol. The sum of primary NMOG EFs correlates to MCE with an R2 of 0.68 and a slope of −296 ± 51 g kg−1, consistent with previous studies. The sum of the NMOG mixing ratios correlates well with CO with an R2 of 0.98 and a slope of 137 ± 4 ppbv of NMOGs per parts per million by volume (ppmv) of CO, demonstrating that primary NMOG emissions can be estimated from CO. Individual nitrogen-containing species correlate better with NO2, NOy, and black carbon than with CO. More than half of the NOy in fresh plumes is NO2 with an R2 of 0.95 and a ratio of NO2 to NOy of 0.55 ± 0.05 ppbv ppbv−1, highlighting that fast photochemistry had already occurred in the sampled fire plumes. The ratio of NOy to the sum of NMOGs follows trends observed in laboratory experiments and increases exponentially with MCE, due to increased emission of key nitrogen species and reduced emission of NMOGs at higher MCE during flaming combustion. These parameterizations will provide more accurate boundary conditions for modeling and satellite studies of fire plume chemistry and evolution to predict the downwind formation of secondary pollutants, including ozone and secondary organic aerosol.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  6. Understanding of the fundamental chemical and physical processes that lead to the formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in the atmosphere has been rapidly advancing over the past decades. Many of these advancements have been achieved through laboratory studies, particularly SOA studies conducted in environmental chambers. Results from such studies are used to develop simplified representations of SOA formation in regional- and global-scale air quality models. Although it is known that there are limitations in the extent to which laboratory experiments can represent the ambient atmosphere, there have been no systematic surveys of what defines atmospheric relevance in the context of SOA formation. In this work, GEOS-Chem version 12.3 was used to quantitatively describe atmospherically relevant ranges of chemical and meteorological parameters critical for predictions of the mass, composition, and physical properties of SOA. For some parameters, atmospherically relevant ranges are generally well represented in laboratory studies. However for other parameters, significant gaps exist between atmospherically relevant ranges and typical laboratory conditions. For example, cold winter (less than 0 °C) and humid (greater than 70% RH) conditions are relatively common on the Earth’s surface but are poorly represented in published chamber data. Furthermore, the overlap in relative humidity and organic aerosol mass between chamber studies and ambient conditions is almost nonexistent. For parameters with significant gaps, extended laboratory studies and/or mechanistic models are needed to bridge these gaps. 
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