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  1. Abstract

    Manipulation of nanoparticles by light induced forces is widely used in nanotechnology and bioengineering. In normal cases, when a nanoparticle is illuminated by light waves, the transfer of momentum from light to the nanoparticle can push it to move along the light propagation direction. On the other hand, the lateral optical force can transport an object perpendicular to the light propagation direction, and the optical pulling force can attract an object toward the light source. Although these optical forces have drawn growing attention, in situ tuning of them is rarely explored. In this paper, tuning of both lateral optical forces and optical pulling forces is numerically demonstrated via a graphene/α‐phase molybdenum trioxide (α‐MoO3) bilayer structure. Under plane‐wave illumination, both the amplitude and direction of the optical forces exerted on a nanoparticle above this bilayer structure can be tuned in the mid‐infrared range. The underlying mechanism can be understood by studying the corresponding isofrequency contours of the hybrid plasmon‐phonon polaritons supported by the graphene/α‐MoO3bilayer. The analytical study using the dipole approximation method reproduces the numerical results, revealing the origin of the optical forces. This work opens a new avenue for engineering optical forces to manipulate various objects optically.

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  2. Abstract

    On the basis of the Jones matrix, independent control over the amplitude and phase of light has been demonstrated by combining several meta‐atoms into the supercell of a metasurface. However, due to the intrinsic limitation of a planar achiral structure, the maximum number of independent, complex elements in one Jones matrix is three, giving rise to up to three‐channel amplitude and phase control. In this work, more Jones matrices corresponding to different angles of incidence are proposed to add, so that the degrees of freedom in the amplitude and phase control can be further increased. The supercell of the designed metasurfaces consists of three dielectric nanoblocks with predefined rotation angles and displacements in the 2D space, which can be inversely determined with the help of the genetic algorithm. Empowered by the ability to realize four‐ or even eight‐channel amplitude and phase control, the generation of multiple structured light, including two independent perfect Poincaré beams, two double‐ring perfect Poincaré beams, two perfect Poincaré beam arrays, and four vector vortex beam arrays, is numerically demonstrated. Such novel designs are expected to benefit the development of modern optical applications, including but not limited to optical communications, quantum information, and signal encryption.

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  3. Abstract

    In this work, mode conversion and wavefront shaping by integrating a metallic metasurface on top of a planar waveguide are proposed and demonstrated. The metasurface consists of C‐shaped nanoantennas. By controlling the orientation of each nanoantenna, mode conversion and focusing effect for the cross‐polarized electric fields inside the waveguide are achieved. The design and simulation results of 16 scenarios of wideband transverse‐magnetic to transverse‐electric mode converters with the mode purity up to 98%, and on‐chip lenses at the wavelength of 1550 nm are reported. It is worth noting that the dimension of the devices along the propagation direction is only 9.6 µm. This work manifests the potential application of mode division multiplexing systems and on‐chip optical interconnections based on metasurfaces.

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