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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
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  4. Weak measurement (WM) with state pre- and post-selection can amplify otherwise undetectable small signals and thus has potential in precision measurement applications. Although frequency measurements offer the hitherto highest precision due to the stable narrow atomic transitions, it remains a long-standing interest to develop new schemes to further escalate their performance. Here, we demonstrate a WM-enhanced correlation spectroscopy technique capable of narrowing the resonance linewidth down to 0.1 Hz in a room-temperature atomic vapour cell. The potential of this technique for precision measurement is demonstrated through weak magnetic-field sensing. By judiciously pre- and post-selecting frequency-modulated input and output optical states inmore »a nearly orthogonal manner, a sensitivity of 7 fT Hz^(−1/2) at a low frequency near DC is achieved using only one laser beam with 15 µW of power. Additionally, our results extend the WM framework to a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian and shed new light on metrology and bio-magnetic field sensing.« less
  5. Clinopyroxene (Cpx) is commonly believed to be the best structural water (hydrogen) carrier among all major upper mantle nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs). In this study, we have measured the single-crystal elastic properties of a Cpx, a natural omphacite with ~710 ppm water at ambient pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions. Utilizing the single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microprobe data, the unit cell parameters and density were determined as a = 9.603(9) Å, b = 8.774(3) Å, c = 5.250(2) Å, β = 106.76(5)o, V = 255.1(4) Å3, and ρ = 3.340(6) g/cm3. We performed Brillouin spectroscopy experiments on fourmore »single crystals along a total of 52 different crystallographic directions. The best-fit single-crystal elastic moduli (Cijs), bulk and shear moduli were determined as: C11 = 245(1) GPa, C22 = 210(2) GPa, C33 = 249.6(9) GPa, C44 = 75.7(9) GPa, C55 = 71.2(5) GPa, C66 = 76(1) GPa, C12 = 85(2) GPa, C13 = 70(1) GPa, C23 = 66(2) GPa, C15 = 8.0(6) GPa, C25 = 6(1) GPa, C35 = 34.7(6) GPa, and C46 = 8.7(7) GPa, KS0 = 125(3) GPa, and G0 = 75(2) GPa, respectively. Compared with the anticipated elastic properties of an anhydrous omphacite with the same chemical composition, our results indicate that the incorporation of ~710 ppm structural water has no resolvable effect on the aggregate elastic properties of omphacite, although small differences (up to ~9 GPa) were observed in C13, C25, C44, and C66.« less
  6. Exploiting the sensitivity of the IRAM NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA) and its ability to process large instantaneous bandwidths, we have studied the morphology and other properties of the molecular gas and dust in the star forming galaxy, H-ATLAS J131611.5+281219 (HerBS-89a), at z = 2.95. High angular resolution (0 . ″3) images reveal a partial 1 . ″0 diameter Einstein ring in the dust continuum emission and the molecular emission lines of 12 CO(9−8) and H 2 O(2 02  − 1 11 ). Together with lower angular resolution (0 . ″6) images, we report the detection of a series of molecularmore »lines including the three fundamental transitions of the molecular ion OH + , namely (1 1  − 0 1 ), (1 2  − 0 1 ), and (1 0  − 0 1 ), seen in absorption; the molecular ion CH + (1 − 0) seen in absorption, and tentatively in emission; two transitions of amidogen (NH 2 ), namely (2 02  − 1 11 ) and (2 20  − 2 11 ) seen in emission; and HCN(11 − 10) and/or NH(1 2  − 0 1 ) seen in absorption. The NOEMA data are complemented with Very Large Array data tracing the 12 CO(1 − 0) emission line, which provides a measurement of the total mass of molecular gas and an anchor for a CO excitation analysis. In addition, we present Hubble Space Telescope imaging that reveals the foreground lensing galaxy in the near-infrared (1.15  μ m). Together with photometric data from the Gran Telescopio Canarias, we derive a photometric redshift of z phot = 0.9 −0.5 +0.3 for the foreground lensing galaxy. Modeling the lensing of HerBS-89a, we reconstruct the dust continuum (magnified by a factor μ  ≃ 5.0) and molecular emission lines (magnified by μ  ∼ 4 − 5) in the source plane, which probe scales of ∼0 . ″1 (or 800 pc). The 12 CO(9 − 8) and H 2 O(2 02  − 1 11 ) emission lines have comparable spatial and kinematic distributions; the source-plane reconstructions do not clearly distinguish between a one-component and a two-component scenario, but the latter, which reveals two compact rotating components with sizes of ≈1 kpc that are likely merging, more naturally accounts for the broad line widths observed in HerBS-89a. In the core of HerBS-89a, very dense gas with n H 2  ∼ 10 7 − 9 cm −3 is revealed by the NH 2 emission lines and the possible HCN(11 − 10) absorption line. HerBS-89a is a powerful star forming galaxy with a molecular gas mass of M mol  = (2.1 ± 0.4) × 10 11   M ⊙ , an infrared luminosity of L IR  = (4.6 ± 0.4) × 10 12   L ⊙ , and a dust mass of M dust  = (2.6 ± 0.2) × 10 9   M ⊙ , yielding a dust-to-gas ratio δ GDR  ≈ 80. We derive a star formation rate SFR = 614 ± 59  M ⊙ yr −1 and a depletion timescale τ depl  = (3.4 ± 1.0) × 10 8 years. The OH + and CH + absorption lines, which trace low (∼100 cm −3 ) density molecular gas, all have their main velocity component red-shifted by Δ V  ∼ 100 km s −1 relative to the global CO reservoir. We argue that these absorption lines trace a rare example of gas inflow toward the center of a galaxy, indicating that HerBS-89a is accreting gas from its surroundings.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2022