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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Electromigration (EM) becomes a major concern for VLSI circuits as the technology advances in the nanometer regime. With Korhonen equations, EM assessment for VLSI circuits remains challenged due to the increasing integrated density. VLSI multisegment interconnect trees can be naturally viewed as graphs. Based on this observation, we propose a new graph convolution network (GCN) model, which is called {\it EMGraph} considering both node and edge embedding features, to estimate the transient EM stress of interconnect trees. Compared with recently proposed generative adversarial network (GAN) based stress image-generation method, EMGraph model can learn more transferable knowledge to predict stress distributionsmore »on new graphs without retraining via inductive learning. Trained on the large dataset, the model shows less than 1.5% averaged error compared to the ground truth results and is orders of magnitude faster than both COMSOL and state-of-the-art method. It also achieves smaller model size, 4X accuracy and 14X speedup over the GAN-based method.« less
  3. Two-dimensional van der Waals (vdWs) materials have gathered a lot of attention recently. However, the majority of these materials have Curie temperatures that are well below room temperature, making it challenging to incorporate them into device applications. In this work, we synthesized a room-temperature vdW magnetic crystal Fe5GeTe2 with a Curie temperature T$_c = 332$ K, and studied its magnetic properties by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. The experiments were performed with external magnetic fields applied along the c-axis (H$\parallel$c) and the ab-plane (H$\parallel$ab), with temperatures ranging from 300 to 10 K. We have foundmore »a sizable Landé g-factor difference between the H$\parallel$c and H$\parallel$ab cases. In both cases, the Landé g-factor values deviated from g = 2. This indicates contribution of orbital angular momentum to the magnetic moment. The FMR measurements reveal that Fe5GeTe2 has a damping constant comparable to Permalloy. With reducing temperature, the linewidth was broadened. Together with the VSM data, our measurements indicate that Fe5GeTe2 transitions from ferromagnetic to ferrimagnetic at lower temperatures. Our experiments highlight key information regarding the magnetic state and spin scattering processes in Fe5GeTe2, which promote the understanding of magnetism in Fe5GeTe2, leading to implementations of Fe5GeTe2 based room-temperature spintronic devices.« less
  4. Electromigration (EM) is a major failure effect for on-chip power grid networks of deep submicron VLSI circuits. EM degradation of metal grid lines can lead to excessive voltage drops (IR drops) before the target lifetime. In this paper, we propose a fast data-driven EM-induced IR drop analysis framework for power grid networks, named {\it GridNet}, based on the conditional generative adversarial networks (CGAN). It aims to accelerate the incremental full-chip EM-induced IR drop analysis, as well as IR drop violation fixing during the power grid design and optimization. More importantly, {\it GridNet} can naturally leverage the differentiable feature of deepmore »neural networks (DNN) to {\it obtain the sensitivity information of node voltage with respect to the wire resistance (or width) with marginal cost}. {\it GridNet} treats continuous time and the given electrical features as input conditions, and the EM-induced time-varying voltage of power grid networks as the conditional outputs, which are represented as data series images. We show that {\it GridNet} is able to learn the temporal dynamics of the aging process in continuous time domain. Besides, we can take advantage of the sensitivity information provided by {\it GridNet} to perform efficient localized IR drop violation fixing in the late stage design and optimization. Numerical results on 36000 synthesized power grid network samples demonstrate that the new method can lead to $10^5\times$ speedup over the recently proposed full-chip coupled EM and IR drop analysis tool. We further show that localized IR drop violation fix for the same set of power grid networks can be performed remarkably efficiently using the cheap sensitivity computation from {\it GridNet}.« less
  5. Electromigration (EM) analysis for complicated interconnects requires the solving of partial differential equations, which is expensive. In this paper, we propose a fast transient hydrostatic stress analysis for EM failure assessment for multi-segment interconnects using generative adversarial networks (GANs). Our work is inspired by the image synthesis and feature of generative deep neural networks. The stress evaluation of multi-segment interconnects, modeled by partial differential equations, can be viewed as time-varying 2D-images-to-image problem where the input is the multi-segment interconnects topology with current densities and the output is the EM stress distribution in those wire segments at the given aging time.more »We show that the conditional GAN can be exploited to attend the temporal dynamics for modeling the time-varying dynamic systems like stress evolution over time. The resulting algorithm, called {\it EM-GAN}, can quickly give accurate stress distribution of a general multi-segment wire tree for a given aging time, which is important for full-chip fast EM failure assessment. Our experimental results show that the EM-GAN shows 6.6\% averaged error compared to COMSOL simulation results with orders of magnitude speedup. It also delivers $8.3 \times$ speedup over state-of-the-art analytic based EM analysis solver.« less
  6. Abstract The manipulation of antiferromagnetic order in magnetoelectric Cr 2 O 3 using electric field has been of great interest due to its potential in low-power electronics. The substantial leakage and low dielectric breakdown observed in twinned Cr 2 O 3 thin films, however, hinders its development in energy efficient spintronics. To compensate, large film thicknesses (250 nm or greater) have been employed at the expense of device scalability. Recently, epitaxial V 2 O 3 thin film electrodes have been used to eliminate twin boundaries and significantly reduce the leakage of 300 nm thick single crystal films. Here we report the electricalmore »endurance and magnetic properties of thin (less than 100 nm) single crystal Cr 2 O 3 films on epitaxial V 2 O 3 buffered Al 2 O 3 (0001) single crystal substrates. The growth of Cr 2 O 3 on isostructural V 2 O 3 thin film electrodes helps eliminate the existence of twin domains in Cr 2 O 3 films, therefore significantly reducing leakage current and increasing dielectric breakdown. 60 nm thick Cr 2 O 3 films show bulk-like resistivity (~ 10 12 Ω cm) with a breakdown voltage in the range of 150–300 MV/m. Exchange bias measurements of 30 nm thick Cr 2 O 3 display a blocking temperature of ~ 285 K while room temperature optical second harmonic generation measurements possess the symmetry consistent with bulk magnetic order.« less
  7. Context. The response of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes to incident γ -ray-initiated showers in the atmosphere changes as the telescopes age due to exposure to light and weather. These aging processes affect the reconstructed energies of the events and γ -ray fluxes. Aims. This work discusses the implementation of signal calibration methods for the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) to account for changes in the optical throughput and detector performance over time. Methods. The total throughput of a Cherenkov telescope is the product of camera-dependent factors, such as the photomultiplier tube gains and their quantum efficiencies, andmore »the mirror reflectivity and Winston cone response to incoming radiation. This document summarizes different methods to determine how the camera gains and mirror reflectivity have evolved over time and how we can calibrate this changing throughput in reconstruction pipelines for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. The implementation is validated against seven years of observations with the VERITAS telescopes of the Crab Nebula, which is a reference object in very-high-energy astronomy. Results. Regular optical throughput monitoring and the corresponding signal calibrations are found to be critical for the reconstruction of extensive air shower images. The proposed implementation is applied as a correction to the signals of the photomultiplier tubes in the telescope simulation to produce fine-tuned instrument response functions. This method is shown to be effective for calibrating the acquired γ -ray data and for recovering the correct energy of the events and photon fluxes. At the same time, it keeps the computational effort of generating Monte Carlo simulations for instrument response functions affordably low.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  8. Abstract HESS J0632+057 belongs to a rare subclass of binary systems that emit gamma rays above 100 GeV. It stands out for its distinctive high-energy light curve, which features a sharp “primary” peak and broader “secondary” peak. We present the results of contemporaneous observations by NuSTAR and VERITAS during the secondary peak between 2019 December and 2020 February, when the orbital phase ( ϕ ) is between 0.55 and 0.75. NuSTAR detected X-ray spectral evolution, while VERITAS detected TeV emission. We fit a leptonic wind-collision model to the multiwavelength spectra data obtained over the four NuSTAR and VERITAS observations, constrainingmore »the pulsar spin-down luminosity and the magnetization parameter at the shock. Despite long-term monitoring of the source from 2019 October to 2020 March, the MDM observatory did not detect significant variation in H α and H β line equivalent widths, an expected signature of Be-disk interaction with the pulsar. Furthermore, fitting folded Swift-XRT light-curve data with an intrabinary shock model constrained the orbital parameters, suggesting two orbital phases (at ϕ D = 0.13 and 0.37), where the pulsar crosses the Be-disk, as well as phases for the periastron ( ϕ 0 = 0.30) and inferior conjunction ( ϕ IFC = 0.75). The broadband X-ray spectra with Swift-XRT and NuSTAR allowed us to measure a higher neutral hydrogen column density at one of the predicted disk-passing phases.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  9. Abstract Flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are the most luminous blazars at GeV energies but only rarely emit detectable fluxes of TeV gamma rays, typically during bright GeV flares. We explore the gamma-ray variability and spectral characteristics of three FSRQs that have been observed at GeV and TeV energies by Fermi-LAT and VERITAS, making use of almost 100 hr of VERITAS observations spread over 10 yr: 3C 279, PKS 1222+216, and Ton 599. We explain the GeV flux distributions of the sources in terms of a model derived from a stochastic differential equation describing fluctuations in the magnetic field in themore »accretion disk and estimate the timescales of magnetic flux accumulation and stochastic instabilities in their accretion disks. We identify distinct flares using a procedure based on Bayesian blocks and analyze their daily and subdaily variability and gamma-ray energy spectra. Using observations from VERITAS, as well as Fermi, Swift, and the Steward Observatory, we model the broadband spectral energy distributions of PKS 1222+216 and Ton 599 during very high energy (VHE)–detected flares in 2014 and 2017, respectively, strongly constraining the jet Doppler factors and gamma-ray emission region locations during these events. Finally, we place theoretical constraints on the potential production of PeV-scale neutrinos during these VHE flares.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023