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  1. Abstract

    Integrated phononics plays an important role in both fundamental physics and technology. Despite great efforts, it remains a challenge to break time-reversal symmetry to achieve topological phases and non-reciprocal devices. Piezomagnetic materials offer an intriguing opportunity as they break time-reversal symmetry intrinsically, without the need for an external magnetic field or an active driving field. Moreover, they are antiferromagnetic, and possibly compatible with superconducting components. Here, we develop a theoretical framework that combines linear elasticity with Maxwell’s equations via piezoelectricity and/or piezomagnetism beyond the commonly adopted quasi-static approximation. Our theory predicts and numerically demonstrates phononic Chern insulators based on piezomagnetism. We further show that the topological phase and chiral edge states in this system can be controlled by the charge doping. Our results exploit a general duality relation between piezoelectric and piezomagnetic systems, which can potentially be generalized to other composite metamaterial systems.

  2. Abstract

    Nanomechanical resonators are built into phones, as filters or accelerometers, but they lack a knob to effectively tune the frequency at the nanoscale when it’s easy to tune on an octave the tone of a classical musical instrument like a guitar string. Moreover, the control of deformation in nanomaterials, as two-dimensional (2D) materials, to tailor their electronic properties, i.e., straintronic, opens up avenues for applications in force detection, bolometry or quantum emitters. An accurate control of the deformation within these materials is thus necessary to fully exploit their potential. The precise study of deformations in 2D materials involves measurements of vibration modes and nanomechanics. By using a suspended MoS2membrane heated by the Joule effect, we induce a strong softening of the mechanical resonance frequency as a function of the electrothermal heating, over one octave. A simple electrical tension is used to modulate the thermal mechanical tuning. Its amplitude is very large, greater than 100% modulation for one volt, compared to other approaches on 2D or 1D materials and, moreover, a very wide frequency range is accessible. Finally, we have related a photo-induced softening of the membrane over very long times with the current measurements and a photothermal effect.

  3. Charge transport in ferroelectric (FE) gated graphene far from the Dirac point (DP) was studied in the temperature range 300 K < T < 350 K. A non-monotonic/monotonic/non-monotonic behavior in the conductivity [σ(T)] was observed as one moved away from the DP. As the gate polarization increased, additional impurity charges were compensated, which reduced charge scattering. The uncompensated charges doped graphene and σ(T) switched to a monotonic increase with increasing T. However, far from the DP, the polarization reached saturation, which resulted in still lower impurity charge scattering. The carrier concentration increased, and a non-monotonic response in σ(T) reappeared, which was attributed to phonon scattering. A theoretical model is presented that combined impurity charge and phonon scattering conduction mechanisms. The top gate polarizable FE provided a novel approach to investigate charge transport in graphene via controlled compensation of impurity charges, and in the process revealed non-monotonic behavior in σ(T) not previously seen in SiO 2 back gated graphene devices.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  4. Hippocampal seizures are a defining feature of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Area CA1 of the hippocampus is commonly implicated in the generation of seizures, which may occur because of the activity of endogenous cell populations or of inputs from other regions within the hippocampal formation. Simultaneously observing activity at the cellular and network scales in vivo remains challenging. Here, we present a novel technology for simultaneous electrophysiology and multicellular calcium imaging of CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) in mice enabled by a transparent graphene-based microelectrode array (Gr MEA). We examine PC firing at seizure onset, oscillatory coupling, and the dynamics of the seizure traveling wave as seizures evolve. Finally, we couple features derived from both modalities to predict the speed of the traveling wave using bootstrap aggregated regression trees. Analysis of the most important features in the regression trees suggests a transition among states in the evolution of hippocampal seizures.
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 16, 2023
  6. Abstract

    Neurological disorders such as epilepsy arise from disrupted brain networks. Our capacity to treat these disorders is limited by our inability to map these networks at sufficient temporal and spatial scales to target interventions. Current best techniques either sample broad areas at low temporal resolution (e.g. calcium imaging) or record from discrete regions at high temporal resolution (e.g. electrophysiology). This limitation hampers our ability to understand and intervene in aberrations of network dynamics. Here we present a technique to map the onset and spatiotemporal spread of acute epileptic seizures in vivo by simultaneously recording high bandwidth microelectrocorticography and calcium fluorescence using transparent graphene microelectrode arrays. We integrate dynamic data features from both modalities using non-negative matrix factorization to identify sequential spatiotemporal patterns of seizure onset and evolution, revealing how the temporal progression of ictal electrophysiology is linked to the spatial evolution of the recruited seizure core. This integrated analysis of multimodal data reveals otherwise hidden state transitions in the spatial and temporal progression of acute seizures. The techniques demonstrated here may enable future targeted therapeutic interventions and novel spatially embedded models of local circuit dynamics during seizure onset and evolution.