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  1. Abstract We present a comparison of low- J 13 CO and CS observations of four different regions in the LMC—the quiescent Molecular Ridge, 30 Doradus, N159, and N113, all at a resolution of ∼3 pc. The regions 30 Dor, N159, and N113 are actively forming massive stars, while the Molecular Ridge is forming almost no massive stars, despite its large reservoir of molecular gas and proximity to N159 and 30 Dor. We segment the emission from each region into hierarchical structures using dendrograms and analyze the sizes, masses, and line widths of these structures. We find that the Ridge has significantly lower kinetic energy at a given size scale and also lower surface densities than the other regions, resulting in higher virial parameters. This suggests that the Ridge is not forming massive stars as actively as the other regions because it has less dense gas and not because collapse is suppressed by excess kinetic energy. We also find that these physical conditions and energy balance vary significantly within the Ridge and that this variation appears only weakly correlated with distance from sites of massive-star formation such as R136 in 30 Dor, which is ∼1 kpc away. These variations also showmore »only a weak correlation with local star formation activity within the clouds.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 21, 2023
  2. We quantify the frequency of companions of low-redshift (0.013 < z < 0.0252) dwarf galaxies (2 × 108 M⊙ < Mstar < 5 × 109 M⊙) that are isolated from more massive galaxies in SDSS and compare against cosmological expectations using mock observations of the Illustris simulation. Dwarf multiples are defined as two or more dwarfs that have angular separations >55 arcsec, projected separations rp < 150 kpc, and relative line-of-sight velocities ΔVLOS < 150 km s-1. While the mock catalogues predict a factor of two more isolated dwarfs than observed in SDSS, the mean number of observed companions per dwarf is Nc ˜ 0.04, in good agreement with Illustris when accounting for SDSS sensitivity limits. Removing these limits in the mock catalogues predicts Nc ˜ 0.06 for future surveys (LSST, DESI), which will be complete to Mstar = 2 × 108 M⊙. The 3D separations of mock dwarf multiples reveal a contamination fraction of ˜40 per cent in observations from projection effects. Most isolated multiples are pairs; triples are rare and it is cosmologically improbable that bound groups of dwarfs with more than three members exist within the parameter range probed in this study. We find that <1 permore »cent of LMC-analogues in the field have an SMC-analogue companion. The fraction of dwarf "Major Pairs" (stellar mass ratio >1:4) steadily increases with decreasing Primary stellar mass, whereas the cosmological "Major Merger rate" (per Gyr) has the opposite behaviour. We conclude that cosmological simulations can be reliably used to constrain the fraction of dwarf mergers across cosmic time.« less