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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  3. Studies have shown that in the U.S., Black, Hispanic, and women entrepreneurs are given a tiny fraction of venture capital funding, which is vastly disproportionate to their representation in the population. This investment discrepancy is not only socially unjust, but it also deprives the U.S. of the advantages in innovation and global competitiveness that could stem from increasing the participation of these groups in innovative sectors. This is particularly true within transdisciplinary startups, including those focused on smart energy, biomedical, and nanomedical technologies, all of which require cross-disciplinary experts. Every new enterprise in these fields experiences challenges in finding adequatemore »support. These challenges exist at a time in the 21st century when U.S. innovation is facing unprecedented pressures in competition for primacy. In 1960, U.S. R&D expenditure for defense and private industries was approximately 69 percent of global spending on R&D [1]; whereas in 2016, the U.S. share of global R&D expenditure had decreased to just 28 percent [2], due to China’s substantial advances in R&D. If this trend continues, both China’s GDP and R&D expenditure measured by GDP will outperform those of the U.S. by 2030 [3]. To ensure that the U.S. remains a world leader in R&D, the National Science Foundation (NSF) launched the Innovative Postdoctoral Entrepreneurial Research Fellowship (I-PERF) program. I-PERF facilitates the professional development of Black, Hispanic and female research fellows, who are typically underrepresented within STEM fields, by offering them invaluable experience within research and technology companies. The program’s goal is to enhance diversity in the startup and entrepreneurial landscapes, improve opportunities for researchers from underserved groups, and increase the number of highly competent entrepreneurs within the U.S. STEM community. The startup companies involved in the program, which are also supported by the NSF, comprise a variety of new, mixed STEM fields that were unknown just a few decades ago.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  4. Berg, N. ; Bagnall, N. ; Deeprose, C. (Ed.)
    Statistics suggest that Hispanic, Black, and female entrepreneurs receive a disproportionately tiny portion of total venture capital funds in the United States. With this in mind, the National Science Foundation created the I-PERF program. I-PERF supports the professional development of research fellows from underserved groups, offering them hands-on experience within promising research and technology companies, with the goal of increasing diversity in the start-up and entrepreneurial landscape. The program is managed by Dr Teddy Ivanitzki, Rashida Johnson, Rachel Levitin and their colleagues at the American Society for Engineering Education. Women and individuals from underserved minority groups often face additional difficultiesmore »when trying to secure funding for their businesses compared to white males. Every year, the US Small Business Administration (SBA) awards over 5,000 grants to entrepreneurs, for a total of over $3.5 billion. According to the SBA’s 2013 Annual Report, only 15% of these funds were awarded to firms owned by individuals from underrepresented minority groups, despite the fact that these groups make up about one-third of the US population. A similar pattern can also be observed in the venture capital market. In 2019, a non-profit collaboration aimed at increasing diversity in the venture industry, called Diversity VC, released a report outlining the results of a study that polled 10,000 start-up founders. They found that 77% of venture-fund recipients were white, while only 1% were African Americans and 9% were women. Initiatives aimed at supporting the professional development and business endeavors of individuals from underrepresented minority groups are of crucial importance, as they could ensure that these individuals’ talent is recognized, valued, and does not go to waste. Over the past few years, the National Science Foundation (NSF) has introduced and funded a number of projects aimed at supporting start-ups and businesses founded by individuals from underserved minorities, including the Small Business Postdoctoral Research Diversity Fellowship (SBPRDF) program, which started in 2010. The SBPRDF program allowed postdoctoral fellows specialized in STEM disciplines to acquire real-life research experience in entrepreneurial settings and apply their skills within the technology sector. The program placed a total of 79 fellows in companies for periods of two years, 40% of which were women and individuals from underserved minorities. The vast majority of those who participated felt that they had significantly benefitted from the program. The positive feedback offered by those who participated encouraged the NSF to introduce an extension of the SBPRDF program, called the Innovative Postdoctoral Entrepreneurial Research Fellowship, or ‘I-PERF’. The primary mission of the I-PERF program, which was created in 2019 and is managed by the American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), is to support the professional development of research fellows from underrepresented minorities« less
  5. Miller, E. (Ed.)
    On the list of racial and ethnic injustices requiring attention in the U.S., venture capital funding is probably not top-of-mind for many. But it is an area needing reform in order to diversify the leadership of companies fueling innovation in the country. Hispanic or Black entrepreneurs receive just 1 percent of venture capital, according to former administrator of the Small Business Administration Maria Contreras-Sweet. “Does anyone honestly believe these communities are the source of just 1 percent of our best business ideas?”. To expand overall entrepreneurship, accelerate innovation, and increase the participation of underrepresented groups in new startup research andmore »high-tech entrepreneurship, the National Science Foundation selected ASEE to manage the Innovative Postdoctoral Entrepreneurial Research Fellowship (IPERF) program in 2019. The goals: emphasize the professional development of underrepresented research Fellows, advance best practices in postdoctoral programs, and expand the participation of underrepresented scholars in innovative research and technology entrepreneurship« less
  6. Given an input stream of size N , a -heavy hiter is an item that occurs at least N times in S. The problem of finding heavy-hitters is extensively studied in the database literature. We study a real-time heavy-hitters variant in which an element must be reported shortly after we see its T = N - th occurrence (and hence becomes a heavy hitter). We call this the Timely Event Detection (TED) Problem. The TED problem models the needs of many real-world monitoring systems, which demand accurate (i.e., no false negatives) and timely reporting of all events from large, high-speedmore »streams, and with a low reporting threshold (high sensitivity). Like the classic heavy-hitters problem, solving the TED problem without false-positives requires large space ((N ) words). Thus in-RAM heavy-hitters algorithms typically sacrfice accuracy (i.e., allow false positives), sensitivity, or timeliness (i.e., use multiple passes). We show how to adapt heavy-hitters algorithms to exter- nal memory to solve the TED problem on large high-speed streams while guaranteeing accuracy, sensitivity, and timeli- ness. Our data structures are limited only by I/O-bandwidth (not latency) and support a tunable trade-off between report- ing delay and I/O overhead. With a small bounded reporting delay, our algorithms incur only a logarithmic I/O overhead. We implement and validate our data structures empirically using the Firehose streaming benchmark. Multi-threaded ver- sions of our structures can scale to process 11M observations per second before becoming CPU bound. In comparison, a naive adaptation of the standard heavy-hitters algorithm to external memory would be limited by the storage device’s random I/O throughput, i.e., approx 100K observations per second.« less
  7. Poly(ionic liquid) covalently adaptable networks containing thermoreversible furan–maleimide linkages were prepared and characterized for their thermal, mechanical and conductive properties. Self-healing behaviour was initially evaluated using oscillatory rheology where a G ′/ G ′′ crossover temperature of ∼110 °C was observed. Anhydrous conductivities, as determined by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, were found to be on the order of 10 −8 S cm −1 at 30 °C. Recovery of >70% of the original stress and strain at break was found within 2 hours at 105 °C as determined from tensile testing experiments, with breakage occurring at a new point on the film.more »Recovery of conductivity was completed utilizing chronoamperometric cycling whereby >75% of the original current was recovered within two hours at 110 °C.« less