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  1. Abstract

    The omnipresence of charge density waves (CDWs) across almost all cuprate families underpins a common organizing principle. However, a longstanding debate of whether its spatial symmetry is stripe or checkerboard remains unresolved. While CDWs in lanthanum‐ and yttrium‐based cuprates possess a stripe symmetry, distinguishing these two scenarios is challenging for the short‐range CDW in bismuth‐based cuprates. Here, high‐resolution resonant inelastic x‐ray scattering is employed to uncover the spatial symmetry of the CDW in Bi2Sr2 −xLaxCuO6 + δ. Across a wide range of doping and temperature, anisotropic CDW peaks with elliptical shapes are found in reciprocal space. Based on Fourier transform analysis of real‐space models, the results are interpreted as evidence of unidirectional charge stripes, hosted by mutually 90°‐rotated anisotropic domains. This work paves the way for a unified symmetry and microscopic description of CDW order in cuprates.

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  2. Abstract

    Radical reduction of III–V device costs requires a multifaceted approach attacking both growth and substrate costs. Implementing device removal and substrate reuse provides an opportunity for substrate cost reduction. Controlled spalling allows removal of thin devices from the expensive substrate; however, the fracture‐based process currently generates surfaces with significant morphological changes compared to polished wafers. 49 single junction devices are fabricated across the spalled surface of full 50 mm germanium wafers without chemo‐mechanical polishing before epitaxial growth. Device defects are identified and related to morphological spalling defects—arrest lines, gull wings, and river lines—and their impact on cell performance using physical and functional characterization techniques. River line defects have the most consistent and detrimental effect on cell performance. Devices achieve a single junction efficiency above 23% and open‐circuit voltage of 1.01 V, demonstrating that spalled germanium does not need to be returned to a pristine, polished state to achieve high‐quality device performance.

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