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  1. Abstract

    The unknown cause of the correlation between Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) Hubble residuals and their host-galaxy masses (the “mass step”) may bias cosmological parameter measurements. To better understand the mass step, we develop a SALT3 light-curve model for SN cosmology that uses the host-galaxy masses of 296 low-redshift SNe Ia to derive a spectral energy distribution–host-galaxy mass relationship. The resulting model has larger CaiiH and K, Caiinear-infrared triplet, and Siiiequivalent widths for SNe in low-mass host galaxies at 2.2–2.7σsignificance; this indicates higher explosion energies per unit mass in low-mass-hosted SNe. The model has phase-dependent changes in SN Ia colors as a function of host mass, indicating intrinsic differences in mean broadband light curves. Although the model provides a better fit to the SN data overall, it does not substantially reduce data–model residuals for a typical light curve in our sample nor does it significantly reduce Hubble residual dispersion. This is because we find that previous SALT models parameterized most host-galaxy dependencies with their first principal component, although they failed to model some significant spectral variations. Our new model is luminosity and cosmology independent, and applying it to data reduces the mass step by 0.021 ± 0.002 mag (uncertainty accounts for correlated data sets); these results indicate that ∼35% of the mass step can be attributed to luminosity-independent effects. This SALT model version could be trained using alternative host-galaxy properties and at different redshifts, and therefore will be a tool for understanding redshift-dependent correlations between SNe Ia and their host properties as well as their impact on cosmological parameter measurements.

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  2. Abstract

    We present photometric and spectroscopic data for SN 2022joj, a nearby peculiar Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) with a fast decline rate (Δm15,B= 1.4 mag). SN 2022joj shows exceedingly red colors, with a value of approximatelyBV≈ 1.1 mag during its initial stages, beginning from 11 days before maximum brightness. As it evolves, the flux shifts toward the blue end of the spectrum, approachingBV≈ 0 mag around maximum light. Furthermore, at maximum light and beyond, the photometry is consistent with that of typical SNe Ia. This unusual behavior extends to its spectral characteristics, which initially displayed a red spectrum and later evolved to exhibit greater consistency with typical SNe Ia. Spectroscopically, we find strong agreement between SN 2022joj and double detonation models with white dwarf masses of around 1Mand a thin He shell between 0.01 and 0.05M. Moreover, the early red colors are explained by line-blanketing absorption from iron peak elements created by the double detonation scenario in similar mass ranges. The nebular spectra in SN 2022joj deviate from expectations for double detonation, as we observe strong [Feiii] emission instead of [Caii] lines as anticipated, though this is not as robust a prediction as early red colors and spectra. The fact that as He shells get thinner these SNe start to look more like normal SNe Ia raises the possibility that this is the triggering mechanism for the majority of SNe Ia, though evidence would be missed if the SNe are not observed early enough.

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    For the past decade, SALT2 has been the most common model used to fit Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves for dark energy analyses. Recently, the SALT3 model was released, which upgraded a number of model features but has not yet been used for measurements of dark energy. Here, we evaluate the impact of switching from SALT2 to SALT3 for a SN cosmology analysis. We train SALT2 and SALT3 on an identical training sample of 1083 well-calibrated Type Ia supernovae, ensuring that any differences found come from the underlying model framework. We publicly release the results of this training (the SALT ‘surfaces’). We then run a cosmology analysis on the public Dark Energy Survey 3-Yr Supernova data sample (DES-SN3YR), and on realistic simulations of those data. We provide the first estimate of the SN + CMB systematic uncertainty arising from the choice of SALT model framework (i.e. SALT2 versus SALT3), Δw  = + 0.001 ± 0.005 – a negligible effect at the current level of dark energy analyses. We also find that the updated surfaces are less sensitive to photometric calibration uncertainties than previous SALT2 surfaces, with the average spectral energy density dispersion reduced by a factor of two over optical wavelengths. This offers an opportunity to reduce the contribution of calibration errors to SN cosmology uncertainty budgets.

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  4. Abstract

    The modern study of astrophysical transients has been transformed by an exponentially growing volume of data. Within the last decade, the transient discovery rate has increased by a factor of ∼20, with associated survey data, archival data, and metadata also increasing with the number of discoveries. To manage the data at this increased rate, we require new tools. Here we presentYSE-PZ, a transient survey management platform that ingests multiple live streams of transient discovery alerts, identifies the host galaxies of those transients, downloads coincident archival data, and retrieves photometry and spectra from ongoing surveys.YSE-PZalso presents a user with a range of tools to make and support timely and informed transient follow-up decisions. Those subsequent observations enhance transient science and can reveal physics only accessible with rapid follow-up observations. Rather than automating out human interaction,YSE-PZfocuses on accelerating and enhancing human decision making, a role we describe as empowering the human-in-the-loop. Finally,YSE-PZis built to be flexibly used and deployed;YSE-PZcan support multiple, simultaneous, and independent transient collaborations through group-level data permissions, allowing a user to view the data associated with the union of all groups in which they are a member.YSE-PZcan be used as a local instance installed via Docker or deployed as a service hosted in the cloud. We provideYSE-PZas an open-source tool for the community.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    We present the Keck Infrared Transient Survey, a NASA Key Strategic Mission Support program to obtain near-infrared (NIR) spectra of astrophysical transients of all types, and its first data release, consisting of 105 NIR spectra of 50 transients. Such a data set is essential as we enter a new era of IR astronomy with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the upcoming Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (Roman). NIR spectral templates will be essential to search JWST images for stellar explosions of the first stars and to plan an effective Roman SN Ia cosmology survey, both key science objectives for mission success. Between 2022 February and 2023 July, we systematically obtained 274 NIR spectra of 146 astronomical transients, representing a significant increase in the number of available NIR spectra in the literature. Here, we describe the first release of data from the 2022A semester. We systematically observed three samples: a flux-limited sample that includes all transients <17 mag in a red optical band (usually ZTFror ATLASobands); a volume-limited sample including all transients within redshiftz< 0.01 (D≈ 50 Mpc); and an SN Ia sample targeting objects at phases and light-curve parameters that had scant existing NIR data in the literature. The flux-limited sample is 39% complete (60% excluding SNe Ia), while the volume-limited sample is 54% complete and is 79% complete toz= 0.005. Transient classes observed include common Type Ia and core-collapse supernovae, tidal disruption events, luminous red novae, and the newly categorized hydrogen-free/helium-poor interacting Type Icn supernovae. We describe our observing procedures and data reduction usingPypeIt, which requires minimal human interaction to ensure reproducibility.

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  6. Abstract

    We present UV and/or optical observations and models of SN 2023ixf, a type II supernova (SN) located in Messier 101 at 6.9 Mpc. Early time (flash) spectroscopy of SN 2023ixf, obtained primarily at Lick Observatory, reveals emission lines of Hi, Hei/ii, Civ, and Niii/iv/vwith a narrow core and broad, symmetric wings arising from the photoionization of dense, close-in circumstellar material (CSM) located around the progenitor star prior to shock breakout. These electron-scattering broadened line profiles persist for ∼8 days with respect to first light, at which time Doppler broadened the features from the fastest SN ejecta form, suggesting a reduction in CSM density atr≳ 1015cm. The early time light curve of SN 2023ixf shows peak absolute magnitudes (e.g.,Mu= −18.6 mag,Mg= −18.4 mag) that are ≳2 mag brighter than typical type II SNe, this photometric boost also being consistent with the shock power supplied from CSM interaction. Comparison of SN 2023ixf to a grid of light-curve and multiepoch spectral models from the non-LTE radiative transfer codeCMFGENand the radiation-hydrodynamics codeHERACLESsuggests dense, solar-metallicity CSM confined tor= (0.5–1) × 1015cm, and a progenitor mass-loss rate ofṀ=102Myr−1. For the assumed progenitor wind velocity ofvw= 50 km s−1, this corresponds to enhanced mass loss (i.e.,superwindphase) during the last ∼3–6 yr before explosion.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  7. Abstract We present extensive optical photometry of the afterglow of GRB 221009A. Our data cover 0.9–59.9 days from the time of Swift and Fermi gamma-ray burst (GRB) detections. Photometry in rizy -band filters was collected primarily with Pan-STARRS and supplemented by multiple 1–4 m imaging facilities. We analyzed the Swift X-ray data of the afterglow and found a single decline rate power law f ( t ) ∝ t −1.556±0.002 best describes the light curve. In addition to the high foreground Milky Way dust extinction along this line of sight, the data favor additional extinction to consistently model the optical to X-ray flux with optically thin synchrotron emission. We fit the X-ray-derived power law to the optical light curve and find good agreement with the measured data up to 5−6 days. Thereafter we find a flux excess in the riy bands that peaks in the observer frame at ∼20 days. This excess shares similar light-curve profiles to the Type Ic broad-lined supernovae SN 2016jca and SN 2017iuk once corrected for the GRB redshift of z = 0.151 and arbitrarily scaled. This may be representative of an SN emerging from the declining afterglow. We measure rest-frame absolute peak AB magnitudes of M g = −19.8 ± 0.6 and M r = − 19.4 ± 0.3 and M z = −20.1 ± 0.3. If this is an SN component, then Bayesian modeling of the excess flux would imply explosion parameters of M ej = 7.1 − 1.7 + 2.4 M ⊙ , M Ni = 1.0 − 0.4 + 0.6 M ⊙ , and v ej = 33,900 − 5700 + 5900 km s −1 , for the ejecta mass, nickel mass, and ejecta velocity respectively, inferring an explosion energy of E kin ≃ 2.6–9.0 × 10 52 erg. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
  9. Abstract We present multiwavelength observations of the Type II SN 2020pni. Classified at ∼1.3 days after explosion, the object showed narrow (FWHM intensity <250 km s −1 ) recombination lines of ionized helium, nitrogen, and carbon, as typically seen in flash-spectroscopy events. Using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to model our first high-resolution spectrum, we infer a progenitor mass-loss rate of M ̇ = ( 3.5 – 5.3 ) × 10 − 3 M ⊙ yr −1 (assuming a wind velocity of v w = 200 km s −1 ), estimated at a radius of R in = 2.5 × 10 14 cm. In addition, we find that the progenitor of SN 2020pni was enriched in helium and nitrogen (relative abundances in mass fractions of 0.30–0.40 and 8.2 × 10 −3 , respectively). Radio upper limits are also consistent with dense circumstellar material (CSM) and a mass-loss rate of M ̇ > 5 × 10 − 4 M ☉ yr − 1 . During the initial 4 days after first light, we also observe an increase in velocity of the hydrogen lines (from ∼250 to ∼1000 km s −1 ), suggesting complex CSM. The presence of dense and confined CSM, as well as its inhomogeneous structure, indicates a phase of enhanced mass loss of the progenitor of SN 2020pni during the last year before explosion. Finally, we compare SN 2020pni to a sample of other shock-photoionization events. We find no evidence of correlations among the physical parameters of the explosions and the characteristics of the CSM surrounding the progenitors of these events. This favors the idea that the mass loss experienced by massive stars during their final years could be governed by stochastic phenomena and that, at the same time, the physical mechanisms responsible for this mass loss must be common to a variety of different progenitors. 
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