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  1. Abstract The discovery of laser-driven rescattering and high harmonic radiation out to a maximum photon energy of 3.17 times the ponderomotive energy ( U p ) laid the groundwork for attosecond pulse generation and coherent X-rays. As the laser field drives the interaction to higher energies, relativity and the Lorentz force from the laser magnetic field enter into the dynamics. We present the results of recent studies of laser rescattering, including these effects, to give a quantitative description of rescattering dynamics in the high-energy limit, ie, recollision energies of order 1,000 hartree (27 keV). The processes investigated include inner K- and L-shell excitation and the ultimate limit of high harmonic generation via rescattering bremsstrahlung. The results indicate the path to the frontier area of x-ray strong field processes. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  2. Research has highlighted that actively involving students during instruction can lead to positive outcomes for students. However, college mathematics instructors may need support to develop the knowledge and skills necessary to effectively implement this type of instruction. This study looks at how college algebra instructors in a grant-supported professional learning community (PLC) focus on different aspects of their own and others’ teaching. We leverage the instructional triangle as an analytical framework to characterize the foci of participants’ observations. We analyzed PLC meetings where participants reported on specific aspects of each other’s observed classes. Our analysis revealed that instructors each had a primary focus that drove their observations. We anticipate these different foci will inform future PLC meetings and lead to new questions about instructor thinking, and to continued development of the instructional triangle. 
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  3. We address the challenge of finding the optimal laser intensity and wavelength to drive high-energy, strong field rescattering and report the maximum yields of K-shell andLI-shell hole creation. Surprisingly, our results show laser-driven rescattering is able to create inner shell holes in all atoms from lithium to uranium with the interaction spanning from the deep IR to x-ray free electron laser sources. The calculated peak rescattering follows a simple scaling with the atomic number and laser wavelength. The results show it is possible to describe the ideal laser intensity and wavelength for general high-energy laser rescattering processes.

     
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  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    We search for gravitational-wave (GW) transients associated with fast radio bursts (FRBs) detected by the Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment Fast Radio Burst Project, during the first part of the third observing run of Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo (2019 April 1 15:00 UTC–2019 October 1 15:00 UTC). Triggers from 22 FRBs were analyzed with a search that targets both binary neutron star (BNS) and neutron star–black hole (NSBH) mergers. A targeted search for generic GW transients was conducted on 40 FRBs. We find no significant evidence for a GW association in either search. Given the large uncertainties in the distances of our FRB sample, we are unable to exclude the possibility of a GW association. Assessing the volumetric event rates of both FRB and binary mergers, an association is limited to 15% of the FRB population for BNS mergers or 1% for NSBH mergers. We report 90% confidence lower bounds on the distance to each FRB for a range of GW progenitor models and set upper limits on the energy emitted through GWs for a range of emission scenarios. We find values of order 1051–1057erg for models with central GW frequencies in the range 70–3560 Hz. At the sensitivity of this search, we find these limits to be above the predicted GW emissions for the models considered. We also find no significant coincident detection of GWs with the repeater, FRB 20200120E, which is the closest known extragalactic FRB.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 28, 2024
  6. Abstract The global network of gravitational-wave observatories now includes five detectors, namely LIGO Hanford, LIGO Livingston, Virgo, KAGRA, and GEO 600. These detectors collected data during their third observing run, O3, composed of three phases: O3a starting in 2019 April and lasting six months, O3b starting in 2019 November and lasting five months, and O3GK starting in 2020 April and lasting two weeks. In this paper we describe these data and various other science products that can be freely accessed through the Gravitational Wave Open Science Center at https://gwosc.org . The main data set, consisting of the gravitational-wave strain time series that contains the astrophysical signals, is released together with supporting data useful for their analysis and documentation, tutorials, as well as analysis software packages. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 28, 2024
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  9. Abstract We use 47 gravitational wave sources from the Third LIGO–Virgo–Kamioka Gravitational Wave Detector Gravitational Wave Transient Catalog (GWTC–3) to estimate the Hubble parameter H ( z ), including its current value, the Hubble constant H 0 . Each gravitational wave (GW) signal provides the luminosity distance to the source, and we estimate the corresponding redshift using two methods: the redshifted masses and a galaxy catalog. Using the binary black hole (BBH) redshifted masses, we simultaneously infer the source mass distribution and H ( z ). The source mass distribution displays a peak around 34 M ⊙ , followed by a drop-off. Assuming this mass scale does not evolve with the redshift results in a H ( z ) measurement, yielding H 0 = 68 − 8 + 12 km s − 1 Mpc − 1 (68% credible interval) when combined with the H 0 measurement from GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart. This represents an improvement of 17% with respect to the H 0 estimate from GWTC–1. The second method associates each GW event with its probable host galaxy in the catalog GLADE+ , statistically marginalizing over the redshifts of each event’s potential hosts. Assuming a fixed BBH population, we estimate a value of H 0 = 68 − 6 + 8 km s − 1 Mpc − 1 with the galaxy catalog method, an improvement of 42% with respect to our GWTC–1 result and 20% with respect to recent H 0 studies using GWTC–2 events. However, we show that this result is strongly impacted by assumptions about the BBH source mass distribution; the only event which is not strongly impacted by such assumptions (and is thus informative about H 0 ) is the well-localized event GW190814. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  10. Abstract A study of the charge conjugation and parity ( $$\textit{CP}$$ CP ) properties of the interaction between the Higgs boson and $$\tau $$ τ -leptons is presented. The study is based on a measurement of $$\textit{CP}$$ CP -sensitive angular observables defined by the visible decay products of $$\tau $$ τ -leptons produced in Higgs boson decays. The analysis uses 139 fb $$^{-1}$$ - 1 of proton–proton collision data recorded at a centre-of-mass energy of $$\sqrt{s}= 13$$ s = 13  TeV with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Contributions from $$\textit{CP}$$ CP -violating interactions between the Higgs boson and $$\tau $$ τ -leptons are described by a single mixing angle parameter $$\phi _{\tau }$$ ϕ τ in the generalised Yukawa interaction. Without constraining the $$H\rightarrow \tau \tau $$ H → τ τ signal strength to its expected value under the Standard Model hypothesis, the mixing angle $$\phi _{\tau }$$ ϕ τ is measured to be $$9^{\circ } \pm 16^{\circ }$$ 9 ∘ ± 16 ∘ , with an expected value of $$0^{\circ } \pm 28^{\circ }$$ 0 ∘ ± 28 ∘ at the 68% confidence level. The pure $$\textit{CP}$$ CP -odd hypothesis is disfavoured at a level of 3.4 standard deviations. The results are compatible with the predictions for the Higgs boson in the Standard Model. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024