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  1. The underserved population could be at risk during the times of crisis, unless there is strong involvement from government agencies such as local and state Health departments and federal Center for Disease Control (CDC). The COVID-19 pandemic was a crisis of different proportion, creating a different type of burden on government agencies. Vulnerable communities including the elderly populations and communities of color have been especially hard hit by this pandemic. This forced these agencies to change their strategies and supply chains to support all populations receiving therapeutics. The National Science Foundation [National Science Foundation (NSF) Award Abstract # 2028612] funded RAID Labs to help federal agencies with strategies. This paper is based on a NSF funded grant to work on investigating supply chain strategies that would minimize the impact on underserved populations during pandemic. This NSF funded study identified the phenomena of last mile importance. The last mile transportation concept was critical in saving lives during the pandemic for underserved populations. The supply chain model then maximizes social goods by sending drugs or vaccines to the communities that need it the most regardless of ability to pay. The outcome of this study helped us prioritize the communities that need themore »vaccines the most. This informs our supply chain model to shift resources to these areas showing the value in real time prioritization of the COVID-19 supply chain. This paper provides information can be used in our healthcare supply chain model to ensure timely delivery of vaccines and supplies to COVID-19 patients that are the most vulnerable and hence the overall impact of COVID-19 can be minimized. The use of electrical vehicles for last mile transportation can help in significantly fighting the climate change.« less
  2. Self-neglect is an inability or refusal to meet one's own basic needs as accepted by societal norms and is the most common report received by state agencies charged with investigating abuse, neglect and exploitation of vulnerable adults. Self-neglect is often seen in addition to one or multiple conditions of frailty, mild to severe dementia, poor sleep and depression. While awareness of elder self-neglect as a public health condition and intervention has significantly risen in the past decade as evidenced by the increasing amount of literature available, research on self-neglect still lacks comprehensiveness and clarity since its inception to the medical literature in the late 1960s. With the burgeoning of the older adult population, commonness of self-neglect will most likely increase as the current incidence rate represents only the “tip of the iceberg” theory given that most cases are unreported. The COVID-19 pandemic has exacerbated the incidence of self-neglect in aged populations and the need for the use of intervention tools for aging adults and geriatric patients living alone, many of which may include in-home artificial intelligence systems. Despite this, little research has been conducted on aspects of self-neglect other than definition and identification. Substantial further study of this disorder's etiology,more »educating society on early detection, and conceivably preventing this syndrome altogether or at least halting progression and abating its severity is needed. The purpose of this research is to provide a definition of severe self-neglect, identify key concepts related to self-neglect, comprehensively describe this syndrome, present a conceptual framework and analyze the model for its usefulness, generalizability, parsimony, and testability.« less