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    Gaseous outflows are key phenomena in the evolution of galaxies, as they affect star formation (either positively or negatively), eject gas from the core or disc, and directly cause mixing of pristine and processed material. Active outflows may be detected through searches for broad spectral line emission or high-velocity gas, but it is also possible to determine the presence of past outflows by searching for extended reservoirs of chemically enriched molecular gas in the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around galaxies. In this work, we examine the CO(3−2) emission of a set of seven z ∼ 2.0–2.5 active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxies, as observed with ALMA. Through a 3D stacking analysis, we find evidence for extended CO emission of radius r ∼ 13 kpc. We extend this analysis to the HST/ACS i-band images of the sample galaxies, finding a complex small-scale (r < 10 kpc) morphology but no robust evidence for extended emission. In addition, the dust emission (traced by rest-frame FIR emission) shows no evidence for significant spatial extension. This indicates that the diffuse CO emission revealed by ALMA is morphologically distinct from the stellar component, and thus traces an extended reservoir of enriched gas. The presence of a diffuse, enriched molecular reservoir around this sample of AGN host galaxies at cosmic noon hints at a history of AGN-driven outflows that likely had strong effects on the star formation history of these objects.

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    Kepler data for three SRS: stars, V616 Lyrae, V607 Lyrae, and V621 Lyrae, were analyzed to study their period structure. Two of the stars had confirmed SRS light curve characteristics. V616 Lyr shows two strong periods at 16.91 days and 8.18 days. V607 Lyr shows one strong period at 13.55 days. V616 Lyr and V607 Lyr also display amplitude changes common to the SR stars. Variability was not detected for V621 Lyr. Evidence for solar-like oscillations in V616 Lyr is presented. 
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  5. Abstract In this work, we present polarization profiles for 23 millisecond pulsars observed at 820 and 1500 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope as part of the NANOGrav pulsar timing array. We calibrate the data using Mueller matrix solutions calculated from observations of PSRs B1929+10 and J1022+1001. We discuss the polarization profiles, which can be used to constrain pulsar emission geometry, and present both the first published radio polarization profiles for nine pulsars and the discovery of very low-intensity average profile components (“microcomponents”) in four pulsars. We obtain the Faraday rotation measures for each pulsar and use them to calculate the Galactic magnetic field parallel to the line of sight for different lines of sight through the interstellar medium. We fit for linear and sinusoidal trends in time in the dispersion measure and Galactic magnetic field and detect magnetic field variations with a period of 1 yr in some pulsars, but overall find that the variations in these parameters are more consistent with a stochastic origin. 
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    We have carried out the first spatially resolved investigation of the multiphase interstellar medium (ISM) at high redshift, using the z = 4.24 strongly lensed submillimetre galaxy H-ATLASJ142413.9+022303 (ID141). We present high-resolution (down to ∼350 pc) ALMA observations in dust continuum emission and in the CO(7–6), $\rm H_2O (2_{1,1} - 2_{0,2})$, [C i] (1–0), and [C i] (2–1) lines, the latter two allowing us to spatially resolve the cool phase of the ISM for the first time. Our modelling of the kinematics reveals that the system appears to be dominated by a rotationally-supported gas disc with evidence of a nearby perturber. We find that the [C i] (1–0) line has a very different distribution to the other lines, showing the existence of a reservoir of cool gas that might have been missed in studies of other galaxies. We have estimated the mass of the ISM using four different tracers, always obtaining an estimate in the range of $\rm 3.2{\!-\!}3.8 \times 10^{11}\ M_{\odot }$, significantly higher than our dynamical mass estimate of $\rm 0.8{\!-\!}1.3 \times 10^{11}\ M_{\odot }$. We suggest that this conflict and other similar conflicts reported in the literature is because the gas-to-tracer ratios are ≃4 times lower than the Galactic values used to calibrate the ISM in high-redshift galaxies. We demonstrate that this could result from a top-heavy initial mass function and strong chemical evolution. Using a variety of quantitative indicators, we show that, extreme though it is at z = 4.24, ID141 will likely join the population of quiescent galaxies that appears in the Universe at z ∼ 3.

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    We present 10 main-sequence ALPINE galaxies (log (M/M⊙) = 9.2−11.1 and ${\rm SFR}=23-190\, {\rm M_{\odot }\, yr^{-1}}$) at z ∼ 4.5 with optical [O ii] measurements from Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy and Subaru/MOIRCS narrow-band imaging. This is the largest such multiwavelength sample at these redshifts, combining various measurements in the ultraviolet, optical, and far-infrared including [C ii]158 $\mu$m line emission and dust continuum from ALMA and H α emission from Spitzer photometry. For the first time, this unique sample allows us to analyse the relation between [O ii] and total star-formation rate (SFR) and the interstellar medium (ISM) properties via [O ii]/[C ii] and [O ii]/H α luminosity ratios at z ∼ 4.5. The [O ii]−SFR relation at z ∼ 4.5 cannot be described using standard local descriptions, but is consistent with a metal-dependent relation assuming metallicities around $50{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ solar. To explain the measured dust-corrected luminosity ratios of $\log (L_{\rm [OII]}/L_{\rm [CII]}) \sim 0.98^{+0.21}_{-0.22}$ and $\log (L_{\rm [OII]}/L_{\rm H\alpha }) \sim -0.22^{+0.13}_{-0.15}$ for our sample, ionization parameters log (U) < −2 and electron densities $\log (\rm n_e / {\rm [cm^{-3}]}) \sim 2.5-3$ are required. The former is consistent with galaxies at z ∼ 2−3, however lower than at z > 6. The latter may be slightly higher than expected given the galaxies’ specific SFR. The analysis of this pilot sample suggests that typical log (M/M⊙) > 9 galaxies at z ∼ 4.5 to have broadly similar ISM properties as their descendants at z ∼ 2 and suggest a strong evolution of ISM properties since the epoch of reionization at z > 6.

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  8. Aims. The dust content of normal galaxies and the dust mass density (DMD) at high- z ( z  > 4) are unconstrained given the source confusion and the sensitivity limitations of previous observations. The ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE), which targeted 118 ultra-violet (UV)-selected star-forming galaxies at 4.4 <  z  < 5.9, provides a new opportunity to tackle this issue for the first time with a statistically robust dataset. Methods. We exploited the rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) fluxes of 23 galaxies individually detected in their continuum emission, as well as stacked continuum images, to measure the dust content of the 118 UV-selected ALPINE galaxies. We focused on the dust scaling relations and, by comparison with predictions from chemical evolution models, we probed the evolutionary stage of UV-selected galaxies at high- z . By using the observed correlation between the UV luminosity and the dust mass, we estimated the DMD of UV-selected galaxies at z  ∼ 5, weighting the galaxies by means of the UV luminosity function. The derived DMD is compared with the value we estimated from ten ALPINE galaxies blindly detected in the FIR continuum, at the redshift of the ALPINE targets. Results. Our ALMA survey allows the exploration for the first time of the dust content in normal star-forming galaxies at z  > 4 in a statistically robust sample of sources. The comparison of the observed dust scaling relations with chemical evolution models suggests that ALPINE galaxies are not likely progenitors of disc galaxies, but of intermediate- and low-mass proto-spheroids, resulting in present-day bulges of spiral or elliptical galaxies. Interestingly, this conclusion is in line with the independent morphological analysis that shows that the majority (∼70%) of the dust-continuum detected galaxies have a disturbed morphology. The DMD obtained at z  ∼ 5 from UV-selected sources is ∼30% of the value obtained from blind FIR-selected sources, showing that the UV selection misses the most dust-rich, UV-obscured galaxies. 
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  9. Star formation rate (SFR) measurements at z  > 4 have relied mostly on the rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) observations. The corrections for dust attenuation based on the IRX- β relation are highly uncertain and are still debated in the literature. Hence, rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) observations are necessary to constrain the dust-obscured component of the SFR. In this paper, we exploit the rest-frame FIR continuum observations collected by the ALMA Large Program to INvestigate [CII] at Early times (ALPINE) to directly constrain the obscured SFR in galaxies at 4.4 <  z  < 5.9. We used stacks of continuum images to measure average infrared luminosities taking both detected and undetected sources into account. Based on these measurements, we measured the position of the main sequence of star-forming galaxies and the specific SFR (sSFR) at z  ∼ 4.5 and z  ∼ 5.5. We find that the main sequence and sSFR do not significantly evolve between z  ∼ 4.5 and z  ∼ 5.5, as opposed to lower redshifts. We developed a method to derive the obscured SFR density (SFRD) using the stellar masses or FUV-magnitudes as a proxy of FIR fluxes measured on the stacks and combining them with the galaxy stellar mass functions and FUV luminosity functions from the literature. We obtain consistent results independent of the chosen proxy. We find that the obscured fraction of SFRD is decreasing with increasing redshift, but even at z  ∼ 5.5 it constitutes around 61% of the total SFRD. 
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