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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 29, 2022
  3. Abstract In this work, we present polarization profiles for 23 millisecond pulsars observed at 820 and 1500 MHz with the Green Bank Telescope as part of the NANOGrav pulsar timing array. We calibrate the data using Mueller matrix solutions calculated from observations of PSRs B1929+10 and J1022+1001. We discuss the polarization profiles, which can be used to constrain pulsar emission geometry, and present both the first published radio polarization profiles for nine pulsars and the discovery of very low-intensity average profile components (“microcomponents”) in four pulsars. We obtain the Faraday rotation measures for each pulsar and use them to calculatemore »the Galactic magnetic field parallel to the line of sight for different lines of sight through the interstellar medium. We fit for linear and sinusoidal trends in time in the dispersion measure and Galactic magnetic field and detect magnetic field variations with a period of 1 yr in some pulsars, but overall find that the variations in these parameters are more consistent with a stochastic origin.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  4. The sources of atmospheric methane (CH4) during the Holocene remain widely debated, including the role of high latitude wetland and peatland expansion and fen-to-bog transitions. We reconstructed CH4 emissions from northern peatlands from 13,000 before present (BP) to present using an empirical model based on observations of peat initiation (>3600 14C dates), peatland type (>250 peat cores), and contemporary CH4 emissions in order to explore the effects of changes in wetland type and peatland expansion on CH4 emissions over the end of the late glacial and the Holocene. We find that fen area increased steadily before 8000 BP as fensmore »formed in major wetland complexes. After 8000 BP, new fen formation continued but widespread peatland succession (to bogs) and permafrost aggradation occurred. Reconstructed CH4 emissions from peatlands increased rapidly between 10,600 BP and 6900 BP due to fen formation and expansion. Emissions stabilized after 5000 BP at 42 ± 25 Tg CH4 y-1 as high-emitting fens transitioned to lower-emitting bogs and permafrost peatlands. Widespread permafrost formation in northern peatlands after 1000 BP led to drier and colder soils which decreased CH4 emissions by 20% to 34 ± 21 Tg y-1 by the present day.« less
  5. This paper studies the problem of clustering in metric spaces while preserving the privacy of individual data. Specifically, we examine differentially private variants of the k-medians and Euclidean k-means problems. We present polynomial algorithms with constant multiplicative error and lower additive error than the previous state-of-the-art for each problem. Additionally, our algorithms use a clustering algorithm without differential privacy as a black-box. This allows practitioners to control the trade-off between runtime and approximation factor by choosing a suitable clustering algorithm to use.
  6. We present our work on constructing a template Baryonic Tully-Fisher Relation (BTFR) from galaxies in the local universe that have primary distances. We utilize HI 21 cm line data from the complete Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) survey and the digital HI archive from Springob et al. 2005; we also use photometry from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the NASA Sloan Atlas (NSA) MANGA v1_0_2 database; lastly, we have also made use of the Extragalactic Distance Database (EDD) for identifying galaxies with primary distances. After cross-matching the galaxies in these catalogues, we identify some 144 galaxies which meetmore »our requirements for having all the necessary HI and photometry data, having primary distances, residing within 30 Mpc, and having low enough uncertainties to be considered reliable data points. An important trait of this data set is the prominence of low-mass, low-luminosity dwarves. Notably, we find the values for the slope, intercept and intrinsic scatter of the relation to be around 2.3, 4.8, and 0.4, respectively. Further, while unresolved velocity widths have historically produced shallower slopes, and while the BTFR has been shown to have a higher intrinsic scatter for low-mass galaxies, these precedents are not enough to explain the deviation of our data from the “standard” values of the BTFR. This work therefore raises several questions about why this discrepancy exists, how it can be resolved, and what we can learn from it. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of NSF/AST-1714828 and the Brinson Foundation.« less
  7. We present a method for estimating the amount of matter in large-scale (approximately 50 Mpc) filaments using the surrounding velocity infall pattern, based on 242 filaments in the Millennium simulation. We identify filaments using a minimal spanning tree to link large groups and clusters, and find the axis of each filament using a weighted principle component analysis. We improve our previous determination of a typical infall velocity profile by rescaling the profile for each filament by the distance where the infall speed reaches a maximum. We use the resulting average profile to determine a two-parameter piecewise function that can bemore »used to estimate the maximum infall speed and location for individual filaments. Finally, we present the correlation between the maximum infall speed and the mass of the filament. These results will be used as part of the Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS), a project to map the infall pattern around the Pisces-Perseus Supercluster filament. This work is supported by NSF grant AST-1637339.« less
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022